Table of Contents
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Table of Contents
As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 16, 2021
Registration
No. 333-
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
FORM
S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
 
 
Joby Aviation, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
 
 
 
Delaware
 
6770
 
98-1548118
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(Primary Standard Industrial Classification Code Number)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)
 
 
JoeBen Bevirt
2155 Delaware Avenue, Suite #225
Santa Cruz, CA 95060
(831)
426-3733
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
 
 
Copies to:
 
Jack Sheridan, Esq.
Ryan J. Maierson, Esq.
Benjamin A. Potter, Esq.
Brian D. Paulson, Esq.
Saad Khanani, Esq.
Latham & Watkins LLP
140 Scott Drive
Menlo Park, CA 94025
 
Kate DeHoff
General Counsel
Joby Aviation, Inc.
2155 Delaware Avenue, Suite #225
Santa Cruz, CA 95060
(831)
426-3733
 
 
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale of the securities to the public
: From time to time after this Registration Statement becomes effective.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”), check the following box:  ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering:  ☐
If this Form is a
post-effective
amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering:  ☐
If this Form is a
post-effective
amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering:  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a
non-accelerated
filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
       
Non-accelerated filer
     Smaller reporting company  
       
         Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  
 
 
 
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
 
 
Title of each class of
securities to be registered
 
Amount
to be
registered
 
Proposed
maximum
offering price
per security
 
Proposed
maximum
aggregate
offering price
 
Amount of
registration fee
Common stock
(1)(2)
 
511,219,042
 
$10.54
(3)
 
$5,388,248,702.68
(4)
 
$587,857.94
Warrants
(1)
 
11,533,333
 
—  
 
—  
 
—  
(4)
Common stock
(1)(5)
 
28,783,333
 
$11.50
(5)
 
$331,008,329.50
 
$36,113.01
Total
 
 
 
 
 
$5,719,257,032.18
 
$576,491.12
(6)
 
 
(1)
Pursuant to Rule 416(a) of the Securities Act, there are also being registered an indeterminable number of additional securities as may be issued to prevent dilution resulting from stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.
(2)
The number of shares of common stock being registered represents the sum of (a) 427,719,042 shares of common stock issued in connection with the Merger described herein and (b) 83,500,000 shares of common stock issued to certain qualified institutional buyers and accredited investors in private placements consummated in connection with the business combination.
(3)
Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee, based on the average of the high and low prices of the common stock of Joby Aviation, Inc. (on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) on August 13, 2021 (such date being within five business days of the date that this registration statement was first filed with the SEC). This calculation is in accordance with Rule 457(c) of the Securities Act.
(4)
In accordance with Rule 457(g), the entire registration fee for the warrants is allocated to the shares of common stock underlying the warrants, and no separate fee is payable for the warrants.
(5)
Reflects the shares of common stock that may be issued upon exercise of outstanding warrants, with each warrant exercisable for one share of common stock, subject to adjustment, for an exercise price of $11.50 per share.
(6)
Pursuant to Rule 457(p) under the Securities Act, the registrant is offsetting the registration fee due under this registration statement by $47,479.83, which represents the portion of the registration fee paid with respect to securities that had previously been included in the registrant’s registration statement on Form S-4, as amended (Registration Statement
No. 333-254988),
which was originally filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 2, 2021 and was declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission on July 16, 2021.
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the SEC, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.
 
 
 

Table of Contents
The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
 
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED AUGUST 16, 2021
PROSPECTUS FOR
511,219,042 SHARES OF COMMON STOCK
11,533,333 WARRANTS TO PURCHASE SHARES OF COMMON STOCK
AND
28,783,333 SHARES OF COMMON STOCK UNDERLYING
WARRANTS
OF
JOBY AVIATION, INC.
 
 
This prospectus relates to (i) the resale of 427,719,042 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “common stock”) issued in connection with the Merger (as defined below) by certain of the selling shareholders named in this prospectus (each a “Selling Shareholder” and, collectively, the “Selling Shareholders”), (ii) the resale of 83,500,000 shares of common stock issued in the PIPE Investment (as defined below) by certain of the Selling Shareholders and (iii) the resale of up to 28,783,333 shares of common stock upon the exercise of outstanding warrants. This prospectus also relates to the resale of up to 11,533,333 of our outstanding warrants originally purchased in a private placement by the Selling Shareholders.
On August 10, 2021, we consummated the transactions contemplated by that certain Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of February 23, 2021, by and among Reinvent Technology Partners, a Cayman Islands exempted company (“RTP”), RTP Merger Sub Inc., a Delaware corporation and a wholly owned subsidiary of RTP (“Merger Sub”) and into Joby Aero, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Joby”). As RTP was domesticated as a Delaware corporation and changed its name to “Joby Aviation, Inc.” (the “Domestication”). Following the Domestication, Merger Sub merged with and into Joby, the separate corporate existence of Merger Sub ceased and Joby survived as a wholly owned subsidiary of Joby Aviation, Inc. (“Joby Aviation”) (the “Merger” and, together with the Domestication, the “Business Combination”).
We are registering the securities for resale pursuant to the Selling Shareholders’ registration rights under certain agreements between us and the Selling Shareholders. Our registration of the securities covered by this prospectus does not mean that the Selling Shareholders will offer or sell any of the shares of common stock or warrants. The Selling Shareholders may offer, sell or distribute all or a portion of their shares of common stock or warrants publicly or through private transactions at prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. We provide more information about how the Selling Shareholders may sell the shares of common stock or warrants in the section entitled
“Plan of Distribution.”
We are also registering the resale of shares of common stock held by certain of our affiliates.
We will receive the proceeds from any exercise of the warrants for cash, but not from the resale of the shares of common stock or warrants by the Selling Shareholders.
We will bear all costs, expenses and fees in connection with the registration of the shares of common stock and warrants. The Selling Shareholders will bear all commissions and discounts, if any, attributable to their respective sales of the shares of common stock and warrants.
Trading of our common stock and warrants began on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) on August 11, 2021, under the new ticker symbol “JOBY” for the common stock and “JOBY WS” for the warrants. Prior to the Domestication and transfer to NYSE, RTP’s Class A ordinary shares, par value $0.0001 per share (the “RTP Class A ordinary shares”) and warrants to purchase RTP Class A ordinary shares (the “RTP warrants”) traded under the ticker symbols “RTP” and “RTP WS”, respectively, on NYSE. On August 13, 2021, the closing sale price of our common stock as reported by NYSE was $9.50 per share and the closing price of our warrants was $1.80 per warrant.
 
 
Investing in shares of our common stock or warrants involves risks that are described in the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page 9 of this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of the securities to be issued under this prospectus or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is
August 16, 2021.

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
  
Page
 
   
  
 
ii
 
   
  
 
iii
 
   
  
 
iv
 
   
  
 
viii
 
   
  
 
1
 
   
  
 
9
 
   
  
 
31
 
   
  
 
32
 
   
  
 
33
 
   
  
 
44
 
   
  
 
59
 
   
  
 
77
 
   
  
 
84
 
   
  
 
94
 
   
  
 
97
 
   
  
 
108
 
   
  
 
115
 
   
  
 
125
 
   
  
 
126
 
   
  
 
129
 
   
  
 
129
 
   
  
 
129
 
   
  
 
F-1
 
   
  
 
II-1
 
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus. No one has been authorized to provide you with information that is different from that contained in this prospectus. This prospectus is dated as of the date set forth on the cover hereof. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than that date.
 
i

Table of Contents 
TRADEMARKS
This document contains references to trademarks and service marks belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus may appear without the
®
or
TM
symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that the applicable licensor will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, its rights to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of it by, any other companies.
 
ii

Table of Contents
MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA
This prospectus includes industry and market data obtained from periodic industry publications,
third-party
studies and surveys, including from McKinsey & Company, Deloitte Consulting LLP, Booz Allen Hamilton, Morgan Stanley Research, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Federal Aviation Administration, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, The Texas A&M Transportation Institute and the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as well as from filings of public companies in our industry and internal company surveys. These sources include government and industry sources. Industry publications and surveys generally state that the information contained therein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. Although we believe the industry and market data to be reliable as of the date of this prospectus, this information could prove to be inaccurate. Industry and market data could be wrong because of the method by which sources obtained their data and because information cannot always be verified with complete certainty due to the limits on the availability and reliability of raw data, the voluntary nature of the data gathering process and other limitations and uncertainties. Each publication, study and report speaks as of its original publication date (and not as of the date of this prospectus). Certain of these publications, studies and reports were published before the
COVID-19
pandemic and therefore do not reflect any impact of
COVID-19
on any specific market or globally. In addition, we do not know all of the assumptions regarding general economic conditions or growth that were used in preparing the forecasts from the sources relied upon or cited herein.
 
iii

Table of Contents
SELECTED DEFINITIONS
Unless otherwise stated in this prospectus or the context otherwise requires, references to:
 
   
“2021 Plan” are to the Joby Aviation, Inc. 2021 Incentive Award Plan;
 
   
“Business Combination” are to the Domestication together with the Merger;
 
   
“Closing” are to the closing of the Business Combination on August 10, 2021;
 
   
“Code” are to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended;
 
   
“Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” are to Joby Aviation, Inc.;
 
   
“DGCL” are to the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware;
 
   
“Domestication” are to the domestication of Reinvent Technology Partners as a corporation incorporated in the State of Delaware;
 
   
“ESPP” are to our 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan attached to this prospectus as Annex G;
 
   
“Exchange Act” are to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended;
 
   
“Exchange Ratio” are to the quotient obtained by dividing (i) 500,000,000 by (ii) the aggregate — fully diluted number of shares of Joby common stock issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Merger (which is the aggregate number of shares of Joby common stock (a) issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Merger after giving effect to the exercise of the Joby Warrants, (b) issuable upon the conversion of the Joby preferred stock immediately prior to the Merger in accordance with Joby’s organizational documents, (c) issuable upon, or subject to, the exercise of Joby Options (whether or not then vested or exercisable) that are outstanding immediately prior to the Merger, assuming net settlement, or (d) subject to Joby RSUs (whether or not then vested) that are outstanding immediately prior to the Merger), excluding shares of Joby capital stock issuable pursuant to the Note Conversion;
 
   
“Founder Shares” are to the RTP Class B ordinary shares purchased by the Sponsor in a private placement prior to the initial public offering;
 
   
“GAAP” are to accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America;
 
   
“HSR Act” are to the
Hart-Scott-Rodino
Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976, as amended;
 
   
“In-Q-Tel
Warrant” are to the Warrant to Purchase Securities of Joby, dated March 19, 2021, by and between Joby and
In-Q-Tel,
Inc.;
 
   
“initial public offering” are to RTP’s initial public offering that was consummated on September 21, 2020;
 
   
“IPO registration statement” are to the Registration Statement on Form
S-1
(333-248497)
filed by RTP in connection with its initial public offering, which became effective on September 16, 2020;
 
   
“IRS” are to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service;
 
   
“JOBS Act” are to the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012;
 
   
“Joby Aviation common stock” are to shares of Joby Aviation common stock, par value $0.0001 per share;
 
   
“Joby Aviation, Inc.” are to RTP after the Domestication and its name change from Reinvent Technology Partners;
 
   
“Joby Aviation Options” are to options to purchase shares of Joby Aviation common stock;
 
   
“Joby Aviation RSU Awards” are to awards of restricted stock units based on shares of Joby Aviation common stock;
 
iv

Table of Contents
   
“Joby Awards” are to Joby Options and Joby RSUs;
 
   
“Joby capital stock” are to shares of Joby common stock and Joby preferred stock;
 
   
“Joby common stock” are to shares of Joby common stock, par value $0.00001 per share;
 
   
“Joby Equityholder Approval” are to the adoption of the Merger Agreement and approval of the transactions contemplated thereby, including the Merger, by the affirmative vote or written consent of the holders of at least (i) a majority of the outstanding shares of Joby capital stock and (ii) 60% of the outstanding shares of Joby preferred stock, voting as a single class on an
as-converted
basis;
 
   
“Joby Options” are to options to purchase shares of Joby common stock;
 
   
“Joby PIPE Investor” are to a PIPE Investor that is a holder of shares of Joby capital stock or securities exercisable for or convertible into Joby capital stock as of the date of the Merger Agreement and not a Sponsor Related PIPE Investor;
 
   
“Joby preferred stock” are to the Series
Seed-1
preferred stock, Series
Seed-2
preferred stock, Series A preferred stock, Series B preferred stock and Series C preferred stock of Joby;
 
   
“Joby RSU Awards” are to awards of restricted stock units based on shares of Joby common stock;
 
   
“Joby Stockholders” are to the stockholders of Joby and holders of Joby Awards prior to the Business Combination;
 
   
“Joby Warrants” are to the SVB Warrants and the
In-Q-Tel
Warrant;
 
   
“Merger” are to the merger of Merger Sub with and into Joby, with Joby surviving the merger as a wholly owned subsidiary of Joby Aviation;
 
   
“Merger Agreement” are to the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of February 23, 2021, by and among RTP, Merger Sub and Joby, as amended and modified from time to time;
 
   
“Note Conversion” are to the automatic conversion of the Uber Note into a number of shares of Joby capital stock in accordance with its terms;
 
   
“NYSE” are to the New York Stock Exchange;
 
   
“ordinary shares” are to the RTP Class A ordinary shares and the RTP Class B ordinary shares, collectively;
 
   
“Organizational Documents” are to the Certificate of Incorporation and the Bylaws;
 
   
“Person” are to any individual, firm, corporation, partnership, limited liability company, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, joint stock company, governmental authority or instrumentality or other entity of any kind;
 
   
“PIPE Investment” are to the purchase of shares of Joby Aviation common stock by the PIPE Investors pursuant to the Subscription Agreements, for a total aggregate purchase price of up to $835,000,000;
 
   
“PIPE Investors” are to those certain
third-party
investors, Joby Stockholders and affiliates of the Sponsor participating in the PIPE Investment pursuant to the Subscription Agreements;
 
   
“pro forma” are to giving pro forma effect to the Business Combination;
 
   
“public shareholders” are to holders of public shares, whether acquired in RTP’s initial public offering or acquired in the secondary market;
 
   
“public shares” are to the RTP Class A ordinary shares (including those that underlie the units) that were offered and sold by RTP in its initial public offering and registered pursuant to the IPO registration statement or the shares of our common stock issued as a matter of law upon the conversion thereof at the time of the Domestication, as context requires;
 
v

Table of Contents
   
“Public Warrants” are to the redeemable warrants (including those that underlie the units) that were offered and sold by RTP in its initial public offering and registered pursuant to the IPO registration statement or the redeemable warrants of Joby Aviation issued as a matter of law upon the conversion thereof at the time of the Domestication, as context requires;
 
   
“Public Warrant Holders” are to holders of Public Warrants, whether acquired in RTP’s initial public offering or acquired in the secondary market;
 
   
“redemption” are to each redemption of public shares for cash pursuant to the Cayman Constitutional Documents and the Organizational Documents;
 
   
“Registration Statement” are to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.
 
   
“Reinvent Capital” are to Reinvent Capital LLC.
 
   
“RTP” are to Reinvent Technology Partners prior to the Domestication;
 
   
“RTP Class A ordinary shares” are to RTP’s Class A ordinary shares, par value $0.0001 per share;
 
   
“RTP Class B ordinary shares” are to RTP’s Class B ordinary shares, par value $0.0001 per share;
 
   
“RTP units” and “units” are to the units of RTP, each unit representing one RTP Class A ordinary share and
one-fourth
of one redeemable warrant to acquire one RTP Class A ordinary share, that were offered and sold by RTP in its initial public offering and registered pursuant to the IPO registration statement (less the number of units that have been separated into the underlying public shares and underlying warrants upon the request of the holder thereof);
 
   
“Sarbanes-Oxley
Act” are to the
Sarbanes-Oxley
Act of 2002;
 
   
“SEC” are to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission;
 
   
“Securities Act” are to the Securities Act of 1933, as amended;
 
   
“Sponsor” are to Reinvent Sponsor LLC, a Cayman Islands limited liability company;
 
   
“Sponsor Agreement” are to that certain Sponsor Agreement, dated as of February 23, 2021, by and among the Sponsor, RTP and Joby, as amended and modified from time to time;
 
   
“Sponsor Related PIPE Investors” are to Reinvent Technology SPV I LLC, which is an administrative special purpose vehicle managed by Michael Thompson solely to invest in the PIPE Investment, and Reinvent Capital Fund LP, an investment fund co-founded by Reid Hoffman, Mark Pincus and Michael Thompson (together, in each case, with their permitted transferees);
 
   
“Sponsor Support Agreement” are to that certain Sponsor Support Agreement, dated as of February 23, 2021, by and among the Sponsor, RTP, the directors and officers of RTP, and Joby, as amended and modified from time to time;
 
   
“Subscription Agreements” are to the subscription agreements pursuant to which the PIPE Investment will be consummated;
 
   
“Super
8-K”
are to the Current Report on Form
8-K
to be filed in accordance with the requirements of the Exchange Act and in connection with the transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement;
 
   
“SVB Warrants” are to the Warrant to Purchase Common Stock, by and between Joby and Silicon Valley Bank, dated as of March 29, 2017, and the Warrant to Purchase Common Stock, by and between Joby and Silicon Valley Bank, dated as of May 2, 2018, in each case, as amended on February 16, 2021;
 
   
“Treasury Regulations” are to the regulations promulgated under the Code by the United States Department of the Treasury (whether in final, proposed or temporary form), as the same may be amended from time to time;
 
   
“trust account” are to the trust account established at the consummation of RTP’s initial public offering at Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and maintained by Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, acting as trustee;
 
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“Uber Note” are to the Convertible Promissory Note, issued by Joby to Uber Technologies, Inc., dated as of January 11, 2021;
 
   
“Uber Note Principal Amount” are to $75,000,000;
 
   
“Warrant Agreement” are to the Warrant Agreement, dated as of September 16, 2020, by and between RTP and Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, as warrant agent; and
 
   
“warrants” are to the Public Warrants and the private placement warrants.
Additionally, unless the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to the business of Joby, which became the business of Joby Aviation and its subsidiaries following the Closing.
 
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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING
FORWARD-LOOKING
STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains statements that are
forward-looking
and as such are not historical facts. This includes, without limitation, statements regarding the financial position, business strategy and the plans and objectives of management for our future operations. These statements constitute projections, forecasts and
forward-looking
statements, and are not guarantees of performance. Such statements can be identified by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. When used in this prospectus, words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “strive,” “would” and similar expressions may identify
forward-looking
statements, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not
forward-looking.
Forward-looking
statements in this prospectus and in any document incorporated by reference in this prospectus may include, for example, statements about:
 
   
our public securities’ potential liquidity and trading;
 
   
our ability to raise financing in the future;
 
   
our success in retaining or recruiting, or changes required in, our officers, key employees or directors;
 
   
the impact of the regulatory environment and complexities with compliance related to such environment;
 
   
factors relating to our business, operations and financial performance, including:
 
   
the impact of the
COVID-19
pandemic;
 
   
our ability to maintain an effective system of internal controls over financial reporting;
 
   
our ability to grow market share in our existing markets or any new markets we may enter;
 
   
our ability to respond to general economic conditions;
 
   
our ability to manage our growth effectively;
 
   
our ability to achieve and maintain profitability in the future;
 
   
our ability to access sources of capital to finance operations and growth;
 
   
the success of our strategic relationships with third parties; and
 
   
other factors detailed under the section entitled “Risk Factors.”
These
forward-looking
statements are based on information available as of the date of this prospectus and current expectations, forecasts and assumptions, and involve a number of judgments, risks and uncertainties. Accordingly,
forward-looking
statements should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date, and we do not undertake any obligation to update
forward-looking
statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date they were made, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws.
As a result of a number of known and unknown risks and uncertainties, our actual results or performance may be materially different from those expressed or implied by these
forward-looking
statements. You should not place undue reliance on these
forward-looking
statements.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus and may not contain all of the information that is important to you in making an investment decision. Before investing in our securities, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, including our financial statements and the related notes included in this prospectus and the information set forth under the headings “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” See also the section entitled “Where You Can Find Additional Information.”
Unless context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” refer to the business of Joby, which became the business of Joby Aviation following the Closing.
Our company
Our vision is to save a billion people an hour every day by delivering a new form of clean and quiet aerial transportation. Building on recent advancements in energy storage, microelectronics, and software, we’re developing an
all-electric
aircraft that will transport a pilot and four passengers at speeds of up to 200 mph, while also having the ability to takeoff and land vertically.
We intend to operate our aircraft on journeys of 5 to 150 miles, providing rapid and cost-effective connections between cities and their surrounding areas. Compared to traditional ground-based infrastructure such as road and rail, aerial ridesharing networks can be set up rapidly, and at a significantly lower cost, enabling us to provide a sustainable solution to today’s dual challenges of congestion and climate change.
By combining the freedom of straight-line air travel with the efficiency of our aircraft, we expect to deliver journeys that are up to 5 times faster than driving, and it is our goal to steadily drive down
end-user
pricing in the years following commercial launch to ensure the service becomes widely accessible.
Our aircraft has been specifically designed to achieve a considerably lower noise footprint than that of today’s conventional aircraft. It is quiet at takeoff and near silent when flying overhead, which we anticipate will allow us to operate from new skyport locations nearer to where people live and work, in addition to utilizing the more than 5,000 heliport and airport infrastructure assets already in existence in the U.S. alone.
We don’t intend to sell these aircraft to third parties or individual consumers. Instead, we will manufacture, own, and operate our aircraft, building a vertically integrated transportation company that will deliver a convenient
app-based
aerial ridesharing service directly to
end-users.
We believe this business model will generate the greatest economic returns, while providing us with
end-to-end
control over the customer experience to optimize for customer safety, comfort, and value. To
de-risk
this ambitious model, we have established partnerships with world leading companies such as Toyota and Uber as well as government agencies such as the U.S. Air Force.
The emerging Urban Air Mobility (UAM) market is projected to reach greater than $500 billion in the U.S. alone. By leveraging our vertically integrated business model, technological differentiation, and
best-in-class
strategic relationships, we believe we have an historic opportunity to define a new market for sustainable daily mobility, enabling people to rethink the way they move in and around metropolitan areas and the rural communities that surround them.
Extending the Electrification of Transportation to the Skies
Over the past two decades, improvements in lithium-ion batteries and power electronics alongside the ever-increasing performance of microelectronics have enabled the development and deployment of new sustainable
 
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energy and transportation solutions. The success of electric ground vehicles have fueled continued investments in improving these technologies. Battery energy densities, in particular, have improved enough that application to aviation is now practical.
We expect the electrification of transportation to accelerate and extend to the skies in the decade ahead, representing a place where technology, economy, and sustainability converge. Applying electrification to small aircraft unlocks new degrees of freedom in design that were not possible with traditional, combustion engines. Using multiple small electric motors (which has been called “distributed electric propulsion”) rather than a single central engine enables a new class of quiet, safe, and economical vertical takeoff and landing aircraft that were previously infeasible.
 
 
The low noise, operating costs and carbon emissions enabled by the all-electric powertrain, combined with the ability to take off and land vertically, unlocks aerial access to urban cores in ways not currently possible. We believe this will result in a new market for high-volume aerial mobility in and around cities and the suburban and rural communities that surround them. We believe this new solution will enable people to not just rethink how they get around on a daily basis, but also provide greater freedom to choose where they call home relative to the economic, cultural, and social opportunities that have historically drawn people together.
Our Business Strategy
Our Aerial Ridesharing Service
We intend to build an aerial ridesharing service powered by a network of eVTOL aircraft that we will manufacture and operate. We plan to develop an
app-based
platform that will permit consumers to directly book rides through our service. We will also integrate access to our service into leading third-party demand aggregation platforms, including through our partnership with Uber. Whether our service is accessed through our own platform, or through a partner app like Uber, we will tightly integrate ground transportation providers for the first and last mile with our aerial service, providing a seamless travel experience.
We believe that our
app-based
aerial ridesharing service will be fast, convenient, comfortable, environmentally sustainable, and, over time, progressively more affordable. By maintaining full control over the design, development, test, manufacture, and operations of our aircraft, we intend to deliver a service that is optimized from beginning to end, positioning us to be the leading company in this market.
 
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Our vertically integrated business model ensures we aren’t simply manufacturing aircraft for sale and receiving
one-time
revenues, but instead generating recurring revenues over the lifetime of the aircraft with corresponding benefits to contribution margin.
The Most Capable Aircraft for Aerial Ridesharing
Our team of world-class engineers have been working to develop an aircraft specifically designed for aerial ridesharing for more than a decade. Over that period, we have built a team that is deeply committed to vertically integrated engineering, testing, prototyping, and manufacturing.
In-housing
the development of much of the aircraft has required greater
up-front
investment in R&D, however it has allowed us to develop systems and components that are specifically engineered for their intended application. We believe this has resulted in an aircraft with
best-in-class
capabilities across key performance metrics, while reducing reliance on program-critical, third-party suppliers that add cost to the final product and risk to development and certification schedules.
When designing the aircraft, we prioritized three areas that we believe are central to unlocking high-volume aerial ridesharing: (i) safety, (ii) noise and (iii) performance.
 
   
Safety
:
By utilizing distributed electric propulsion, we’re able to deliver a fault-tolerant overall architecture for the aircraft. Each propeller is powered by two independent electric motors, each in turn driven by independent electric motor drive-units. Each drive-unit draws power from a separate battery, of which there are four onboard the aircraft.
This emphasis on redundancy is extended to other critical subsystems of the aircraft, including the flight computers, control surfaces, communications network, and actuators. The result is a design intended to have no single points of failure across aircraft systems.
 
   
Noise:
Developing an aircraft with a low noise footprint that allows for regular operations within metropolitan areas is important to community acceptance. In addition to the benefits afforded by an all-electric powertrain, we’ve spent substantial engineering resources to reduce the noise signature of the aircraft even further. The result is an aircraft that is 100-times quieter than a twin-engine helicopter, exhibiting a noise profile in the range of 65 dBA during takeoff and landing (the noisiest configuration).
 
   
Performance
:
Our commitment to vertical integration and
in-house
development has allowed for optimization of systems and components across the aircraft, resulting in better energy efficiency, range, and speed than what would otherwise be available using
commercial-off-the-shelf
(COTS) componentry.
The end result is a transformational new electric aircraft that is uniquely capable of pioneering this exciting new market-all with a minimal environmental footprint.
First to FAA Certification
In addition to having developed an aircraft design with
best-in-class
performance, we expect to be the first company to receive FAA type certification and be first to introduce large-scale commercial operations with an eVTOL aircraft.
In the U.S., new aircraft designs are required to pass through the rigorous FAA design certification process, known as type certification, before the aircraft can be issued a standard airworthiness certificate to fly in the National Airspace System (NAS). This is an exacting process often extending over 5 plus years that requires extensive ground and
in-flight
testing with FAA scientists, engineers, and flight test pilots across a fleet of multiple aircraft.
 
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We believe that we are further along in this type certification process than any of our direct competitors. From the very beginning, we designed our aircraft to meet the criteria of FAA Part 23 as a normal category piloted electric airplane, which can also takeoff and land vertically. We have been flying full-scale prototypes of our aircraft through the full transition flight envelope since 2017, conducting tests and gathering data. In parallel, we’ve been working with the FAA to establish the specific design criteria that apply to this aircraft. In 2020, the FAA provided us with a signed certification basis (known within the industry as a
G-1).
The
G-1
certification basis is an agreement with the FAA on the set of tests that need to be done at the component and vehicle level to prove the safety of the aircraft and receive type certification. A
G-1
certification basis provides us with a clear path to certify our aircraft design. To our knowledge we are the first company developing a comparable aircraft to have reached this important milestone.
We have made significant investment in our certification team, building this into a core company competency. Our progress through certification is supported by our team of more than 30 certification experts, including more than 15 FAA appointed Designated Engineering Representatives and Designated Airworthiness Representatives. This team has collectively participated in more than 25 new aircraft type certification programs and has more than 275 years of collective experience certifying aircraft. We believe that this intentional and strategic investment in certification expertise provides us with an important point of competitive differentiation.
We expect the FAA type certificate will be reciprocated internationally pursuant to the bilateral agreements between the FAA and its counterpart civil aviation authorities. This will provide a means of efficient international expansion as we develop commercial operations around the world.
Capitalize on First Mover Advantage
To achieve our vision of saving a billion people an hour a day, we will need to deliver a transformational service at a price point that is economically accessible. We believe that being first to market with the right aircraft will provide important first mover advantages that will enable us to steadily drive down
end-user
pricing in the years following commercial launch.
Emerging technologies often benefit from positive network effects as the product or service enters the market, and we expect this to hold true for aerial ridesharing. As additional passengers enter the network, utilization rates for our aircraft will increase, thereby improving unit economics and allowing costs to be amortized over a greater number of trips. At the same time, reductions in per aircraft costs driven by greater manufacturing scale can support progressively lower pricing while maintaining similar per aircraft unit profitability. A combination of these local network effects coupled with the economies of scale in manufacturing allow us to estimate that by 2026 we will be able to offer the service at a cost of $3 per passenger mile, with opportunities to drive that
end-user
pricing down even further over time.
We expect this will result in a virtuous cycle. As additional passengers enter the network, we will be able to support the establishment of new routes and infrastructure, further increasing the value and utility of the service to the passengers using it. We believe this will position us to capture customer mindshare and establish a trusted, recognized brand that will keep passengers returning to the service and further reinforce these positive network effects.
Finally, we believe that network effects, combined with our strong engineering function, will provide a robust base for investments in next generation technologies such as autonomy and improvements in battery energy density. Accelerating the development, or otherwise capturing the benefits of improvements in these technologies will provide another lever for improving unit economics and driving down
end-user
pricing, precipitating the next cycle of network effects.
 
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Compelling Unit Economics with Quick Payback Period
From the early design stage, we’ve been focused on developing an aircraft that delivers compelling unit economics. First, we expect the fault-tolerant architecture of the aircraft, combined with a design intended to have no single points of failure across aircraft systems, will result in substantially lower maintenance costs and down time relative to existing aircraft. Second, with a top speed nearly double that of conventional helicopters, we will be able to deliver faster operating speeds and amortize fixed and variable costs over a greater number of passenger seat miles. Finally, by being
all-electric,
the aircraft operates with substantially lower fuel costs relative to conventionally fueled alternatives. These low maintenance costs, low fuel costs and high operating speeds combine to deliver an operating cost projected to be 1/4th of the cost per mile flown as a twin engine helicopter.
Develop Partnerships to Reduce Risk
We believe that our strategic relationships provide us with another point of competitive differentiation. Across each of the important activities of high-volume manufacturing,
go-to-market
strategy and
pre-certification
operations, we have established strong collaborations and relationships with Toyota, Uber and the U.S. Government to help to
de-risk
our commercial strategy.
Toyota Motor Corporation
Toyota has invested nearly $400 million in Joby to date, making Toyota our largest outside investor. However, the collaboration goes beyond pure financial backing. Toyota engineers are working shoulder to shoulder with their Joby counterparts on a daily basis across collaboration projects such as factory planning and layout, manufacturing process development and design for manufacturability.
In addition to being the world’s largest automaker, Toyota is globally recognized for delivering quality, safety and reliability at scale, all of which are necessary characteristics in aerospace manufacturing. We believe this makes Toyota a strong collaboration partner as we continue to develop our high-volume manufacturing capabilities.
Uber Technologies, Inc.
We believe that our partnership with Uber Technologies, Inc. and our acquisition of Uber’s Elevate business, provides us with two important competitive advantages in our
go-to-market
planning and execution.
First, through our acquisition of Elevate we were able to welcome 40 experienced team members from Uber, along with a set of software tools focused on planning and operations the Elevate team had developed over several years. The planning tools we acquired enable higher fidelity decision-making on market selection, infrastructure siting, demand simulation and multi-modal operations, and are supported by underlying mobility data sets that feed these software tools. The operational tools we acquired were developed to support the Uber Copter service, a multi-modal aerial ridesharing service run by Uber in late 2019 and early 2020. We believe the acquisition of Elevate positions us to make uniquely informed, data-driven decisions in the lead up to commercial launch, as well as accelerating our operational readiness.
Second, the collaboration agreement that we entered into with Uber at the closing of the Elevate acquisition expanded our earlier 2019 collaboration agreement, and provides for the integration of our aerial ridesharing service into the Uber app. We believe this will provide a
best-in-class
platform to funnel demand to our aerial ridesharing service, while allowing us to reduce customer acquisition costs in the early years of commercial operations.
 
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U.S. Air Force
In December of 2020, we became, to our knowledge, the first company to receive airworthiness approval for an eVTOL aircraft from the U.S. Air Force, and in the first quarter of 2021 we officially began
on-base
operations under contract pursuant to the U.S. Air Force’s Agility Prime program. Our multi-year relationship with the U.S. Air Force and other U.S. Government agencies provides us with a compelling opportunity to more thoroughly understand the operational capabilities and maintenance profiles of our aircraft in advance of commercial launch. We believe it will also provide an opportunity to test various aspects of the consumer-facing aerial ridesharing service. By operating our aircraft on U.S. military installations on a contractor-owned, contractor-operated model, we expect to gain valuable insight that will result in a more reliable service at launch.
In addition to the operational learnings, our existing contracts also provide for more than $40 million of payments through 2024 based upon full performance, and we are actively pursuing additional contracts and relationships that would increase these
on-base
operations going forward.
Future Market Opportunities
We believe there are opportunities to address markets that are adjacent to our core mobility business, including delivery and logistics as well as emergency services. We may make select forward investments to better address these market adjacencies over time.
We further believe that developments in advanced flight controls, battery technologies and alternative methods of energy storage could have a meaningful impact on our core mobility business. Advanced flight controls, including additional “pilot assist” features and, in time, fully-autonomous flight, may allow us to drive-down cost and lower customer pricing as well as relieve operational constraints to service scale. Improvements in battery technology or alternative forms of electricity generation such as hydrogen fuel cells, may allow us to increase the range, speed and/or payload of our vehicles, dramatically expanding the range of trips and use-cases we can serve.
We are now investing and will continue to invest strategically in these areas to ensure that we are well-positioned to capture the benefits offered by these new technical developments. In certain cases, we expect that Joby may lead development and deployment efforts within our industry.
Risk Factors
Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those highlighted in the section entitled “Risk Factors” immediately following this prospectus summary, that represent challenges that we face in connection with the successful implementation of our strategy and the growth of our business. In particular, the following considerations, among others, may offset our competitive strengths or have a negative effect on our business strategy, which could cause a decline in the price of shares of our common stock or warrants and result in a loss of all or a portion of your investment:
 
   
Our success depends on the growth of the market for Urban Air Mobility and upon the willingness of consumers to adopt aerial ridesharing services;
 
   
We may not be able to launch its aerial ridesharing service beginning in 2024, as currently projected;
 
   
We may not be able to effectively build a
customer-facing
business or app;
 
   
We may not be able to reduce
end-user
pricing over time at rates sufficient to stimulate demand and drive expected growth for its aerial ridesharing service;
 
   
We may not be able to capture its first mover advantage if its competitors commercialize their technology first;

 
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We may not be able to secure or effectively integrate first and last mile ground mobility into our aerial ridesharing service, or otherwise make the service sufficiently convenient to drive customer adoption;
 
   
Risk that homogeneity in broader industry may impact customer perception of us and our reputation;
 
   
Demand for our services may be affected by changes in consumer preferences, discretionary spending and other economic conditions;
 
   
Potential aircraft underperformance or defects or inability to produce aircraft in the volumes projected or on the timelines projected, which anticipate commercialization beginning in 2024;
 
   
Potential material adverse impact of crashes, accidents or incidents of eVTOL aircraft or involving lithium batteries involving us or our competitors;
 
   
We depends on suppliers and service partners for the parts and components in our aircraft and for operational needs;
 
   
We may not be able to obtain relevant regulatory approvals for the commercialization of its aircraft or operation of its mobility service;
 
   
There may be regulatory disagreements regarding integrating its service into the National Airspace System without changes to existing regulations and procedures and potential inability to comply if changes are needed;
 
   
We may face an increase in operating costs and resulting service delays and disruptions if there are changes government regulation imposing additional requirements and restrictions on its operations;
 
   
Risks related to the U.S. Department of Transportation regulation of the terms of sale of our air transportation services;
 
   
We may face cost increases resulting from security regulation;
 
   
Risks related to potential unfavorable changes in U.S. export and import control laws and regulations;
 
   
We may not be able to secure contracts or continue to grow our relationship with the U.S. government and the Department of Defense, limiting its ability to operate prior to receiving FAA certification of airworthiness;
 
   
Risk that the U.S. government may modify, curtail or terminate one or more of our contracts;
 
   
Risks related to unauthorized use by third parties of Joby Aviation’s intellectual property;
 
   
Conflicts may arise between us and our strategic partners;
 
   
Natural disasters, permitting or other external factors affecting operations of Joby Aviation’s facilities;
 
   
We have a history of operating losses and may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to achieve and sustain profitability.
 
   
Risk of any material disruption in our information systems;
 
   
If we are unable to and maintain adequate facilities and infrastructure, including securing access to key infrastructure such as airports, we may not be able to offer useful services;
 
   
The shortage of pilots and mechanics may impact our operating costs and its ability to deploy service at scale;
 
   
Risks associated with weather, climate change, natural disasters, outbreaks and pandemics, regulatory conditions and other external factors;
 
   
Significant expenditures in capital improvements and operating expenses to develop and maintain a skyport network to support a
high-volume
service;

 
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We depend on the continued services of our senior management team and other highly skilled personnel, and the loss of one or more key employees or an inability to attract and retain highly skilled employees could harm our business.
Accounting Treatment
The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). Under the guidance in ASC 805, Joby Aviation expected to be treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. Accordingly, the Business Combination will be treated as the equivalent of Joby issuing stock for the net assets of Joby Aviation, accompanied by a recapitalization whereby no goodwill or other intangible assets are recorded. Operations prior to the Business Combination will be those of Joby.
Corporate Information
We were incorporated under the name “Reinvent Technology Partners” on July 3, 2020 as a Cayman Islands exempted company for purposes of effecting a merger, share exchange, asset acquisition, share purchase, reorganization or similar business combination with one or more businesses. On August 10, 2021, we domesticated into a Delaware corporation and changed our name to “Joby Aviation, Inc.” in connection with the Domestication.
Our principal executive office is located at 2155 Delaware Avenue, Suite #225, Santa Cruz, CA 95060. Its telephone number is (831)
426-3733.
Our website address is www.jobyaviation.com. Information contained on our website is not a part of this prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.
 
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RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below before making an investment decision. Our business, prospects, financial condition, or operating results could be harmed by any of these risks, as well as other risks not currently known to us or that we currently consider immaterial. The trading price of our securities could decline due to any of these risks, and, as a result, you may lose all or part of your investment.
In the course of conducting our business operations, we are exposed to a variety of risks. These risks are generally inherent to the Urban Air Mobility market or otherwise generally impact participants in the market like us. Any of the risk factors we describe below have affected or could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The market price of shares of our common stock could decline, possibly significantly or permanently, if one or more of these risks and uncertainties occurs. Certain statements in “Risk Factors” are
forward-looking
statements. See “Cautionary Note Regarding
Forward-Looking
Statements.”
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Market & Service
The market for Urban Air Mobility (UAM) has not been established with precision, is still emerging and may not achieve the growth potential we expect or may grow more slowly than expected.
The UAM market is still emerging and has not been established with precision. It is uncertain to what extent market acceptance will grow, if at all. We intend to initially launch operations in a limited number of metropolitan areas. The success of these markets and the opportunity for future growth in these markets may not be representative of the potential market for UAM in other metropolitan areas. Our success will depend to a substantial extent on regulatory approval and availability of eVTOL technology, as well as the willingness of commuters and travelers to
widely-adopt
air mobility as an alternative for ground transportation. If the public does not perceive UAM as beneficial, or chooses not to adopt UAM as a result of concerns regarding safety, affordability, value proposition or for other reasons, then the market for our offerings may not develop, may develop more slowly than we expect or may not achieve the growth potential we expect. As a result, the number of potential fliers using our services cannot be predicted with any degree of certainty, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to operate in a profitable manner in any of our current or targeted future markets. Any of the foregoing could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Growth of our business will require significant investments in our infrastructure, technology and marketing and sales efforts. Our current cash flow has not been sufficient to support these needs. If our business does not generate the level of available cash flow required to support these investments, our results of operations will be negatively affected. Further, our ability to effectively manage growth and expansion of our operations will also require us to enhance our research and development, manufacturing, operational systems, internal controls and infrastructure, human resources policies and reporting systems. These enhancements will require significant capital expenditures and allocation of valuable management and employee resources.
There may be reluctance by consumers to adopt this new form of mobility, or unwillingness to pay our projected prices.
Our growth is highly dependent upon the adoption by consumers of an entirely new form of mobility offered by eVTOL aircraft and the UAM market. If consumers do not adopt this new form of mobility or are not willing to pay the prices we project for our aerial ridesharing service, our business never materialize and our, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be harmed. This market is new, rapidly evolving, characterized by rapidly changing technologies, price competition, additional competitors, evolving government regulation and industry standards, new aircraft announcements and changing consumer demands and behaviors.
 
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Our success in a given market will depend on our ability to develop a network of passengers and accurately assess and predict passenger demand and price sensitivity. Demand and price sensitivity may fluctuate based on a variety of factors, including macroeconomic factors, quality of service, negative publicity, safety incidents, corporate reporting related to safety, quality of customer support, perceived political or geopolitical affiliations, or dissatisfaction with our products and offerings in general. If we fail to attract passengers or fail to accurately predict demand and price sensitivity, it would harm our financial performance and our competitors’ products may achieve greater market adoption and may grow at a faster rate than our service.
We expect that a large driver of passenger demand for our service will be time savings when compared with alternative modes of transportation. Should we be unable to deliver a sufficient level of time savings for our passengers or if expected time savings are impacted by delays or cancellations, it could reduce demand for our services. If we are unable to generate demand or demand falls, our business, financial conditions, and results of operations could be adversely affected.
We may not be able to launch our aerial ridesharing service beginning in 2024, as currently projected.
We will need to address significant regulatory, political, operational, logistical, and other challenges in order to launch our aerial ridesharing service. We do not currently have infrastructure in place to operate the service and such infrastructure may not be available or may be occupied on an exclusive basis by competitors. We also have not yet received FAA certification of our aircraft or other required airspace or operational authority and government approvals, which is essential to operate the service, and for aircraft production and operation. In addition, our
pre-certification
operations may increase the likelihood of discovering issues with our aircraft, which could result in delays to certification of our aircraft. Any delay in the financing, design, manufacture and launch of our aircraft could materially damage our brand, business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. Aircraft manufacturers often experience delays in the design, manufacture and commercial release of new aircraft. These delays may result in additional costs and adverse publicity for our business. If we are not able to overcome these challenges, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition will be negatively impacted and our ability to grow our business will be harmed. In addition to operate as an air carrier, we will need to obtain an air carrier certificate from the Federal Aviation Administration (“FAA”) and economic authority from the U.S. Department of Transportation (“DOT”).
We may be unable to effectively build a
customer-facing
business or app.
We have not yet developed the application that will act as the platform through which users will book trips. We may experience difficulty in developing the applications necessary to operate the business, including the customer facing application, which may result in adverse effects on the business. The software underlying the application is expected to be highly complex and may contain undetected errors or vulnerabilities, some of which may only be discovered after the code has been released. The
third-party
software that we incorporate into our platform may also be subject to errors or vulnerabilities. Any errors or vulnerabilities discovered in our platform, whether in our proprietary code or that of third
third-party
software on which our software relies, could result in negative publicity, a loss of users or loss of revenue, access or other performance issues, security incidents, or other liabilities. Such vulnerabilities could also prevent fliers from booking flights, which would adversely affect our flier utilization rates, or disrupting communications within the company (e.g., flight schedules or passenger manifests), which could affect our
on-time
performance. We may need to expend significant financial and development resources to analyze, correct, eliminate or work around errors or defects or to address and eliminate vulnerabilities. Any failure to timely and effectively resolve any such errors, defects or vulnerabilities could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations as well as negatively impact our reputation or brand. Our systems, or those of third parties upon which we rely, may experience service interruptions, outages, or degradation because of hardware and software defects or malfunctions, human error or malfeasance by third parties or our employees, contractors, or service providers, earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, fires, natural disasters, power losses, disruptions in telecommunications services, fraud, military or political conflicts, terrorist attacks, cyberattacks or other events. Our insurance may not be sufficient, and we may not
 
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have sufficient remedies available to us from our third party service providers, to cover all of our losses that may result from such interruptions, outages, or degradations.
We may be unable to reduce
end-user
pricing over time at rates sufficient to stimulate demand and drive expected growth for our aerial ridesharing service.
We may not be able to successfully reduce
end-user
pricing over time to increase demand, address new market segments and develop a significantly broader customer base. We expect that our initial
end-user
pricing may be most applicable to relatively affluent consumers, and we will need to address additional markets and expand our customer demographic in order to further grow our business. In particular, we intend for our aerial ridesharing service to be economically accessible to a broad segment of the population and appeal to the customers of
ground-based
ridesharing services, taxis, and other methods of transportation.
Reducing
end-user
pricing in a timely manner is dependent on management accurately estimating the unit economics of our aircraft and the corresponding service. For example, if management’s estimates are inaccurate regarding production volumes, utilization rates, demand elasticity, operating conditions, deployment volumes, production costs, indirect cost of goods sold, landing fees, charging fees, electricity availability and/or other operating expense, we may be unable to offer our service at
end-user
pricing that is sufficiently compelling to initiate the local network effects that we are predicting. This could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations as well as negatively impact our reputation or brand.
Our competitors may commercialize their technology before us, either in general or in specific markets, or we may otherwise not be able to fully capture the first mover advantage that we anticipate.
While we expect to be first to market with an eVTOL facilitated aerial ridesharing service, we expect this industry to be increasingly competitive and it is possible that our competitors could get to market before us, either generally or in specific markets. Even if we are first to market, we may not fully realize the benefits we anticipate, and we may not receive any competitive advantage or may be overcome by other competitors. If new companies or existing aerospace companies launch competing solutions in the markets in which we intend to operate and obtain large scale capital investment, we may face increased competition. Additionally, our competitors may benefit from our efforts in developing consumer and community acceptance for eVTOL aircraft and aerial ridesharing, making it easier for them to obtain the permits and authorizations required to operate an aerial ridesharing service in the markets in which we intend to launch or in other markets. In the event we do not capture the first mover advantage that we anticipate, it may harm our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.
Many of our current and potential competitors are larger and have substantially greater resources than we have and expect to have in the future. They may also be able to devote greater resources to the development of their current and future technologies or the promotion and sale of their offerings, or offer lower prices. In particular, our competitors may be able to receive airworthiness certificates or production certificates for their aircraft prior to us receiving such certificates. Our current and potential competitors may also establish cooperative or strategic relationships amongst themselves or with third parties that may further enhance their resources and offerings. Further, it is possible that domestic or foreign companies or governments, some with greater experience in the aerospace industry or greater financial resources than we possess, will seek to provide products or services that compete directly or indirectly with ours in the future. Any such foreign competitor, for example, could benefit from subsidies from, or other protective measures by, its home country.
We may be unable to secure or effectively integrate first and last mile ground mobility into our aerial ridesharing service, or otherwise make the service sufficiently convenient to drive customer adoption.
Our service will depend, in part, on third party ground operators to take customers from their origin to their departure skyport and from their arrival skyport to their ultimate destination. While we expect to be able to
 
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integrate these
third-party
ground operators into our service, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so effectively, at prices that are favorable to us, or at all. While we do not intend to own or operate the ground portion of our multimodal service, our business will rely on such services. Our business and our brand will be affiliated with these
third-party
ground operators and we may experience harm to our reputation if our third party ground operators suffer from poor service, negative publicity, accidents, or safety incidents. The foregoing risks could adversely affect our business, financial conditions and results of operations.
Our customers’ perception of us and our reputation may be impacted by the broader industry and customers may not differentiate our services from our competitors.
Passengers and other stakeholders may not differentiate between us and the broader aviation industry or, more specifically, the UAM service industry. If our competitors or other participants in this market have problems in a wide range of issues, including safety, technology development, engagement with aircraft certification bodies or other regulators, engagement with communities, target demographics or other positioning in the market, security, data privacy, flight delays, or bad customer service, such problems could impact the public perception of the entire industry, including our business. We may fail to adequately differentiate our brand, our services and our aircraft from others in the market which could impact our ability to attract passengers or engage with other key stakeholders. The failure to differentiate ourselves and the impact of poor public perception of the industry could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our prospects and operations may be adversely affected by changes in consumer preferences, discretionary spending and other economic conditions that affect demand for our services, including changes resulting from the
COVID-19
pandemic.
Our business is primarily concentrated on UAM services, which we expect may be vulnerable to changes in consumer preferences, discretionary spending and other market changes impacting discretionary purchases. The global economy has in the past, and will in the future, experience recessionary periods and periods of economic instability, including the current business disruption and related financial impact resulting from the global
COVID-19
health crisis. During such periods, our passengers may choose not to make discretionary purchases or may reduce overall spending on discretionary purchases. Such changes could result in reduced consumer demand for air transportation, including UAM services, or could shift demand from our UAM services to other methods of air or ground transportation for which we do not offer a competing service. If we are unable to generate demand or there is a future shift in consumer spending away from UAM services, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Aircraft and Production
Our aircraft may not perform at the level we expect, and may have potential defects, such as higher than expected noise profile, lower payload than initially estimated, shorter range and/or shorter useful lives than we anticipate.
Our aircraft may contain defects in design and manufacture that may cause them not to perform as expected or that may require repair. For example, our aircraft may have a higher noise profile than we expect or carry a lower payload or have shorter maximum range than we estimate. Our aircraft also use a substantial amount of software code to operate. Software products are inherently complex and often contain defects and errors when first introduced.
While we have performed extensive testing, in some instances we are still relying on projections and models to validate the projected performance of our aircraft. To date, we have been unable to validate the performance of our aircraft over the expected lifetime of the aircraft. There can be no assurance that we will be able to detect and fix any defects in the aircraft prior to their use in our service.
 
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We expect to introduce new and additional features and capabilities to the aircraft and our service over time. For example, we may initially operate under visual flight rules (VFR) only, and then add the ability to operate under instrument flight rules (IFR) subsequently pursuant to block upgrade to the aircraft. We may be unable to develop or certify these upgrades in a timely manner or at all.
Our service will initially rely on a single aircraft type. Our dependence on our aircraft makes us particularly vulnerable to any design defects or mechanical problems associated with our aircraft or its component parts. Any product defects or any other failure of our aircraft to perform as expected could harm our reputation and result in adverse publicity, delays in or inability to obtain certification, lost revenue, delivery delays, product recalls, product liability claims, harm to our brand and reputation, and significant warranty and other expenses, and could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.
We may not be able to produce aircraft in the volumes and on the timelines projected, which anticipate commercialization beginning in 2024.
There are significant challenges associated with mass producing aircraft in the volumes that we are projecting. Our manufacturing facility and processes remain in the prototype stage. The aerospace industry has traditionally been characterized by significant barriers to entry, including large capital requirements, investment costs of designing and manufacturing aircraft, long lead times to bring aircraft to market from the concept and design stage, the need for specialized design and development expertise, extensive regulatory requirements and establishing a brand name and image and the need to establish maintenance and service locations. As a manufacturer of electric aircraft, we face a variety of added challenges to entry that a traditional aircraft manufacturer would not encounter including additional costs of developing and producing an electric powertrain, regulations associated with the transport of
lithium-ion
batteries and unproven
high-volume
customer demand for a fully electric aerial mobility service. Additionally, we are developing production lines for components and at volumes for which there is little precedent within the traditional aerospace industry. If we are not able to overcome these barriers, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition will be negatively impacted and our ability to grow our business will be harmed.
We have not yet constructed a
high-volume
production facility in which to manufacture and assemble our aircraft. Final designs for the build out of the planned manufacturing facility are still in process, and various aspects of the component procurement and manufacturing plans have not yet been determined. We are currently evaluating, qualifying and selecting our suppliers for the planned production aircraft. However, we may not be able to engage suppliers for the remaining components in a timely manner, at an acceptable price or in the necessary quantities.
In addition, we will also need to do extensive testing to ensure that the aircraft is in compliance with applicable FAA safety regulations and other relevant regulations prior to beginning mass production. In addition to certification of the aircraft, we will be required to obtain approval from the FAA to manufacture completed aircraft pursuant to an
FAA-approved
type design (
e.g.
, type certificate). Production approval involves initial FAA manufacturing approval and extensive ongoing oversight of mass produced aircraft. If we are unable to obtain production approval for the aircraft, or the FAA imposes unanticipated restrictions as a condition of approval, our projected costs of production could increase substantially.
The timing of our production ramp is dependent upon finalizing certain aspects of the design, engineering, component procurement, testing, build out, and manufacturing plans in a timely manner and upon our ability to execute these plans within the current timeline. It is also dependent on being able to timely obtain Production Certification from the FAA. We intend to fund the build out of this manufacturing facility using existing cash, cash from this offering and future financing opportunities. If we are unable to obtain the funds required on the timeline that we anticipate, our plans for building our manufacturing plants could be delayed which may adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
 
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Crashes, accidents or incidents of eVTOL aircraft or involving lithium batteries involving us or our competitors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Test flying prototype aircraft is inherently risky, and crashes, accidents or incidents involving our aircraft are possible. Any such occurrence would negatively impact our development, testing and certification efforts, and could result in
re-design,
certification delay and/or postponements or delays to our commercial service launch.
The operation of aircraft is subject to various risks, and we expect demand for our aerial ridesharing services to be impacted by accidents or other safety issues regardless of whether such accidents or issues involve our aircraft. Such accidents or incidents could also have a material impact on our ability to obtain FAA certification for our aircraft, or to obtain such certification in a timely manner. Such events could impact confidence in a particular aircraft type or the air transportation services industry as a whole, particularly if such accidents or disasters were due to a safety fault. We believe that regulators and the general public are still forming their opinions about the safety and utility of aircraft that are highly reliant on lithium ion batteries, and/or advanced flight control software capabilities. An accident or incident involving either our aircraft or a competitor’s aircraft during these early stages of opinion formation could have a disproportionate impact on the
longer-term
view of the emerging UAM market.
We are at risk of adverse publicity stemming from any public incident involving our company, our people, our brand or other companies in our industry. Such an incident could involve the actual or alleged behavior of any of our employees or
third-party
contractors. Further, if our personnel, our aircraft, or other types of aircraft are involved in a public incident, accident, catastrophe or regulatory enforcement action, we could be exposed to significant reputational harm and potential legal liability. The insurance we carry may be inapplicable or inadequate to cover any such incident, accident, catastrophe or action. In the event that our insurance is inapplicable or inadequate, we may be forced to bear substantial losses from an incident or accident. In addition, any such incident, accident, catastrophe or action involving our employees, our aircraft, or other types of aircraft could create an adverse public perception, which could harm our reputation, result in passengers being reluctant to use our services, and adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Unsatisfactory safety performance of our aircraft could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operation.
While we are building operational processes designed to ensure that the design, testing, manufacture, performance, operation and servicing of our aircraft meet rigorous quality standards, there can be no assurance that we will not experience operational or process failures and other problems, including through flight test accidents or incidents, manufacturing or design defects, pilot error,
cyber-attacks
or other intentional acts, that could result in potential safety risks. Any actual or perceived safety issues may result in significant reputational harm to our businesses, in addition to tort liability, maintenance, increased safety infrastructure and other costs that may arise. Such issues could result in delaying or cancelling planned flights, increased regulation or other systemic consequences. Our inability to meet our safety standards or adverse publicity affecting our reputation as a result of accidents, mechanical or operational failures, or other safety incidents could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation. In addition, our aircraft may be grounded by regulatory authorities due to safety concerns that could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.
Our dependence on suppliers and service partners for the parts and components in our aircraft and for operational needs.
Despite our high degree of vertical integration within the engineering function, we still rely on purchased parts which we source from dozens of suppliers, some of whom are currently single source suppliers for these
 
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components. Our supply base is located globally. Many of the components used in our aircraft must be custom made for us. This supply chain exposes us to multiple potential sources of delivery failure or component shortages for our aircraft. We have not historically maintained
long-term
agreements with our suppliers, though we are taking steps to put in place certain
long-term
agreements. While we believe that we may be able to establish alternate supply relationships and can obtain replacement components, we may be unable to do so in the short term or at all at prices that are favorable to us. We may experience source disruptions in our supply chains which may cause delays in our production process for both prototype and commercial production aircraft. We are also in some cases subject to sole source suppliers for certain pieces of manufacturing equipment for which we rely on, or may be reliant on to achieve our projected
high-volume
production numbers. Changes in business conditions, wars, governmental changes, political intervention, and other factors beyond our control or which we do not presently anticipate, could also affect our suppliers ability to deliver components to us on a timely basis. Furthermore, if we experience significant increased demand, or need to replace our existing suppliers, there can be no assurance that additional supplies of component parts will be available when required on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all, or that any supplier would allocate sufficient supplies to us in order to meet our requirements or fill our orders in a timely manner. The disruption in the supply of components from suppliers could lead to delays in aircraft production, which could materially adversely affect our business, prospects and operating results.
Our business may be adversely affected by union activities.
Although none of our employees are currently represented by a labor union, it is common throughout the aerospace and airline industries generally for many employees to belong to a union, which can result in higher employee costs and increased risk of work stoppages. As we expand our business there can be no assurances that our employees will not join or form a labor union or that we will not be required to become a union signatory.
We are also directly or indirectly dependent upon companies with unionized work forces, such as parts suppliers, and work stoppages or strikes organized by such unions could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition or operating results. If a work stoppage occurs, it could delay the manufacture and sale of our performance electric vehicles and have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results or financial condition.
Regulatory & Airspace
We may be unable to obtain relevant regulatory approvals for the commercialization of our aircraft or operation of our mobility service, including Type Certification, Production Certification, Operating Certification, approvals for permitting new infrastructure or access existing infrastructure or otherwise.
The commercialization of new aircraft and the operation of an aerial mobility service requires certain regulatory authorizations and certifications, including Type Certification and an air carrier certificate issued by the FAA under Part 119 with Part 135 operations specifications. While we anticipate being able to meet the requirements of such authorizations and certificates, we may be unable to obtain such authorizations and certifications, or to do so on the timeline we project. Should we fail to obtain any of the required authorizations or certificates, or do so in a timely manner, or any of these authorizations or certificates are modified, suspended or revoked after we obtain them, we may be unable to launch our commercial service or do so on the timelines we project, which would have adverse effects on our business, prospects, financial condition and/or results of operations.
Regulatory authorities may disagree with our view that integrating our service into the National Airspace System is possible without changes to existing regulations and procedures, and if changes are needed for airspace integration, we may be unable to comply with the required changes, or comply with them in a timely manner.
There are a number of existing laws, regulations and standards that may apply to our aircraft and our service, including standards that were not originally intended to apply to electric aircraft. While our aircraft and
 
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our service are designed, at launch, to operate within the existing U.S. regulatory framework, the FAA or other regulatory authorities within the markets in which we intend to operate may disagree with this view, which may prohibit, restrict, or delay our ability to launch in the relevant market. Regulatory authorities may introduce changes specifically to address electric aircraft or
high-volume
flights that could delay our ability to launch our service.
In addition, the increased volume of flights resulting from UAM and UAM services, including our own service, may result in regulatory changes for integration into the National Airspace System or international airspace systems applicable to our operations. We may be unable to comply with such regulatory changes at all or do so in a timely manner, interrupting our operation. Such regulatory changes could also result in increased costs and pricing of our services, reducing demand and impacting our financial performance.
The foregoing risks and challenges could adversely affect our prospects, business, financial condition and results of operations.
If current airspace regulations are not modified to increase air traffic capacity, our business could be subject to considerable capacity limitations.
A failure to increase air traffic capacity at and in the airspace serving key markets, including around major airports, in the United States or overseas could create capacity limitations for our future operations and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Weaknesses in the National Airspace System and the Air Traffic Control (“ATC”) system, such as outdated procedures and technologies, could result in capacity constraints during peak travel periods or adverse weather conditions in certain markets, resulting in delays and disruptions to our service. While our aircraft is designed to operate in the National Airspace System under existing rules, our business at scale will likely require airspace allocation for UAM operations. Our inability to obtain sufficient access to the National Airspace System could increase our costs and reduce the attractiveness of our service.
Changes in government regulation imposing additional requirements and restrictions on our operations could increase our operating costs and result in service delays and disruptions.
Aerospace manufacturers and aircraft operators are subject to extensive regulatory and legal requirements that involve significant compliance costs. The DOT and the FAA may issue regulations relating to the operation of aircraft that could require significant expenditures. Implementation of the requirements created by such regulations may result in increased costs for our passengers and us. Additional laws, regulations, taxes and airport rates and charges have been proposed from time to time that could significantly increase the cost of our operations or reduce the demand for air travel. If adopted, these measures could have the effect of raising fares, reducing revenue and increasing costs. We cannot assure you that these and other laws or regulations enacted in the future will not harm our business.
DOT regulates the terms of sale of our air transportation services.
To sell air transportation services in the United States, we will need economic authority from DOT authorizing the sale of our proposed charter and
by-the-seat
ridesharing services. DOT regulations govern the sale of these services generally prohibit unfair or deceptive practices and unfair methods of competition. DOT further prescribe standards for, among other things, advertising, ticket refunds, baggage liability, consumer disclosures, customer service commitments, customer complaints and the transportation of passengers with disabilities. In the future, the DOT may adopt additional regulations that increase the costs of our operations or otherwise adversely impact the financial performance of our service.
We may be subject to security regulation that will increase our costs.
The Transportation Security Administration (“TSA”) is responsible for certain civil aviation security matters, including the regulation of air carriers that operate under Part 135 of the Federal Aviation Regulations as
 
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well as the passenger and baggage screening at U.S. airports. Because we are introducing an innovative service that operates from both airports and skyports, the security regulatory scheme that will apply is uncertain. If the TSA were to impose burdensome security requirements on UAM services, it could reduce the convenience of our service and increase our costs.
We are subject to stringent U.S. export and import control laws and regulations. Unfavorable changes in these laws and regulations or U.S. government licensing policies, our failure to secure timely U.S. government authorizations under these laws and regulations, or our failure to comply with these laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation.
Our business is subject to stringent U.S. import and export control laws and regulations as well as economic sanctions laws and regulations. We are required to import and export our products, software, technology and services, as well as run our operations in the United States, in full compliance with such laws and regulations, which may include the EAR, the ITAR, and economic sanctions administered by the Treasury Department’s OFAC. Similar laws that impact our business exist in other jurisdictions. These foreign trade controls prohibit, restrict, or regulate our ability to, directly or indirectly, export, deemed export,
re-export,
deemed
re-export
or transfer certain hardware, technical data, technology, software, or services to certain countries and territories, entities, and individuals, and for end uses. If we are found to be in violation of these laws and regulations, it could result in civil and criminal, monetary and
non-monetary
penalties, the loss of export or import privileges, debarment and reputational harm. While none of our current technologies require us to maintain a registration under ITAR, we may become subject to ITAR in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Pursuant to these foreign trade control laws and regulations, we are required, among other things, to (i) determine the proper licensing jurisdiction and export classification of products, software, and technology, and (ii) obtain licenses or other forms of U.S. government authorization to engage in the conduct of our business. The authorization requirements include the need to get permission to release controlled technology to foreign person employees and other foreign persons. Changes in U.S. foreign trade control laws and regulations, or reclassifications of our products or technologies, may restrict our operations. The inability to secure and maintain necessary licenses and other authorizations could negatively impact our ability to compete successfully or to operate our business as planned. Any changes in the export control regulations or U.S. government licensing policy, such as those necessary to implement U.S. government commitments to multilateral control regimes, may restrict our operations. Given the great discretion the government has in issuing or denying such authorizations to advance U.S. national security and foreign policy interests, there can be no assurance we will be successful in our future efforts to secure and maintain necessary licenses, registrations, or other U.S. government regulatory approvals.
We will be subject to rapidly changing and increasingly stringent laws, regulations, industry standards, and other obligations relating to privacy, data protection, and data security. The restrictions and costs imposed by these requirements, or our actual or perceived failure to comply with them, could harm our business.
We will be collecting, using, and disclosing personal information of passengers, personnel, business contacts, and others in the course of operating our business. These activities are or may become regulated by a variety of domestic and foreign laws and regulations relating to privacy, data protection, and data security, which are complex, rapidly evolving, and increasingly stringent.
State legislatures have begun to adopt comprehensive privacy laws. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, which took effect on January 1, 2020, gives California residents expanded rights related to their personal information, including the right to access and delete their personal information, and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used and shared. Similar laws have been passed or been proposed in other states and at the federal level, reflecting a trend toward more stringent privacy legislation in the United States. The enactment of such laws could have potentially conflicting requirements that would make compliance challenging.
 
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Despite our efforts, we may not be successful in complying with the rapidly evolving privacy, data protection, and data security requirements discussed above. Any actual or perceived
non-compliance
with such requirements could result in litigation and proceedings against us by governmental entities, passengers, or others, fines, civil or criminal penalties, limited ability or inability to operate our business, offer services, or market our platform in certain jurisdictions, negative publicity and harm to our brand and reputation. Such occurrences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
U.S. Government Contracts and
Pre-Certification
Operations
We may be unable to secure contracts or continue to grow our relationship with the U.S. government and the Department of Defense, which will limit our ability to operate prior to receiving FAA certification of airworthiness.
We are projecting that we will enter into additional contracts with the U.S. government pursuant to which we would be able to operate our aircraft as a service provider for the Department of Defense or other U.S. government agencies both prior to receiving a certificate of airworthiness from the FAA and after. Failure to obtain these contracts would limit our ability to gain operational learnings about our aircraft and secure meaningful revenue, failure to receive either of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The U.S. government may modify, curtail or terminate one or more of our contracts.
The U.S. government contracting party may modify, curtail or terminate its contracts with us, without prior notice and either at its convenience or for default based on performance. In addition, funding pursuant to our U.S. government contracts may be reduced or withheld as part of the U.S. Congressional appropriations process due to fiscal constraints, changes in U.S. national security strategy and/or priorities or other reasons. Historically, we have received some U.S. government contract funding under programs designed to benefit “small businesses” as defined under certain provisions of the U.S. Small Business Administration (“SBA”) regulations. The SBA regulations address multiple different programs that have varying eligibility requirements. While we believe that we will continue to be eligible as a small business under some programs, we will likely not be eligible under others. Moreover, the SBA regulations are subject to different interpretations, and the U.S. government may determine that we should no longer be classified as small. If the U.S. government made such a determination, it could terminate, cancel, or decide not to award options on existing agreements.
Any loss or anticipated loss or reduction of expected funding and/or modification, curtailment, or termination of one or more of our U.S. government contracts could have a material adverse effect on our earnings, cash flow and/or financial position, as well as our access to government testing facilities and/or our ability to secure
pre-certification
operating experience and/or revenues.
We conduct a portion of our business pursuant to U.S. government contracts, which are subject to unique risks.
Contracts with the U.S. government are subject to extensive regulations, and changes to those regulations could increase our costs. New regulations, or changes to existing requirements, could increase our compliance costs or otherwise have a material impact on our business. These requirements may result in increased compliance costs, and we could be subject to additional costs in the form of withheld payments and/or reduced future business if we fail to comply with these requirements in the future. Compliance costs attributable to current and potential future regulations such as these could negatively impact our financial condition and operating results.
Contracts with the U.S. government are also subject to a variety of other requirements and risks including government reviews, audits, investigation, False Claims Act cases, suspension and debarment as well as other legal actions and proceedings that generally do not apply to purely commercial contracts. In addition, transactions involving government contractors may be subject to government review and approvals.
 
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Macro
We may be unable to protect our intellectual property rights from unauthorized use by third parties.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to protect our proprietary intellectual property rights, including certain technologies deployed in our aircraft or that we utilize in arranging air transportation. To date, we have relied primarily on patents and trade secrets to protect our proprietary technology. Our software is also subject to certain protection under copyright law, though we have chosen not to register any of our copyrights. We routinely enter into
non-disclosure
agreements with our employees, consultants, third parties and other relevant persons and take other measures to protect our intellectual property rights, such as limiting access to our trade secrets and other confidential information. We intend to continue to rely on these and other means, including patent protection, in the future. However, the steps we take to protect our intellectual property may be inadequate, and unauthorized parties may attempt to copy aspects of our intellectual property or obtain and use information that we regard as proprietary and, if successful, may potentially harm our ability to compete, accelerate the development programs of our competitors, and/or result in a deteriorated competitive position in the market. Moreover, our
non-disclosure
agreements do not prevent our competitors from independently developing technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to ours, and there can be no assurance that our competitors or third parties will comply with the terms of these agreements, or that we will be able to successfully enforce such agreements or obtain sufficient remedies if they are breached. There can be no assurance that the intellectual property rights we own or license will provide competitive advantages or will not be challenged or circumvented by our competitors.
Further, obtaining and maintaining patent, copyright, and trademark protection can be costly, and we may choose not to, or may fail to, pursue or maintain such forms of protection for our technology in the United States or foreign jurisdictions, which could harm our ability to maintain our competitive advantage in such jurisdictions. It is also possible that we will fail to identify patentable aspects of our technology before it is too late to obtain patent protection, that we will be unable to devote the resources to file and prosecute all patent applications for such technology, or that we will inadvertently lose protection for failing to comply with all procedural, documentary, payment, and similar obligations during the patent prosecution process. The laws of some countries do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, and mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property rights in some foreign countries may be inadequate to prevent other parties from infringing our proprietary technology. To the extent we expand our international activities, our exposure to unauthorized use of our technologies and proprietary information may increase. We may also fail to detect unauthorized use of our intellectual property, or be required to expend significant resources to monitor and protect our intellectual property rights, including engaging in litigation, which may be costly,
time-consuming,
and divert the attention of management and resources, and may not ultimately be successful. If we fail to meaningfully establish, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
We may not be able to secure adequate insurance policies, or secure insurance policies at reasonable prices.
We maintain general liability insurance, aviation flight testing insurance, aircraft liability coverage, directors and officers insurance, and other insurance policies and we believe our level of coverage is customary in the industry and adequate to protect against claims. However, there can be no assurance that it will be sufficient to cover potential claims or that present levels of coverage will be available in the future at reasonable cost. Further, we expect our insurance needs and costs to increase as we build production facilities, manufacture aircraft, establish commercial operations, add routes, increase flight and passenger volumes and expand into new markets, and it is too early to determine what impact, if any, the commercial operation of eVTOLs will have on our insurance costs.
 
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If conflicts arise between us and our strategic partners, our business could be adversely affected or these parties may act in a manner adverse to us.
If conflicts arise between our collaborators or strategic partners and us, the other party may act in a manner adverse to us and could limit our ability to implement our strategies. Our collaborators or strategic partners may develop, either alone or with others, products in related fields that are competitive with our products. Specifically, conflicts with Toyota Motor Corporation may adversely impact our ability to manufacture aircraft or scale production, while conflicts with Uber Technologies, Inc. may adversely impact our ability to successfully launch and maintain our
consumer-facing
UAM services. Such conflicts with our strategic partners may result in adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The failure of certain advances in technology such as autonomy or battery density to mature at the rates we project may impact our ability to increase the volume of our service and/or drive down
end-user
pricing at the rates we project.
Our projections rely in part on future advancement of technology, such as aerial and
ground-based
autonomy and an increase in energy density in batteries. Should these technologies fail to develop, mature or be commercially available within the periods that we project, we may underperform our financial projections, which would materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition.
Our facilities may not be operable due to natural disaster, permitting, or other external factors.
Natural disasters, including wildfires, tornados, hurricanes, floods and earthquakes, and severe weather conditions, such as heavy rains, strong winds, dense fog, blizzards or snowstorms, may damage our manufacturing plants, facilities or aircraft. Our Bonny Doon facilities, in particular have been placed at high risk due to wildfire. Our Bonny Doon facilities are also subject to a risk of closure due to zoning and permitting issues. Less severe weather conditions, such as rainfall, snowfall, fog, mist, freezing conditions or extreme temperatures, may also impact the ability for flights to occur as planned, which could reduce our revenue and profitability, and cause passengers to view our service as less reliable.
We have incurred significant losses since inception, we expect to incur losses in the future and we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability.
We have incurred significant losses since inception. We incurred net losses of $106.5 million, $114.2 million and $110.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. We have not yet started commercial operations, and it is difficult for us to predict our future operating results. As a result, our losses may be larger than anticipated, and we may not achieve profitability when expected, or at all, and even if we do, we may not be able to maintain or increase profitability.
We expect our operating expenses to increase over the next several years as we move towards commercial launch, continue to attempt to streamline our manufacturing process, increase our flight cadence, hire more employees and continue research and development efforts relating to new products and technologies. These efforts may be more costly than we expect and may not result in increased revenue or growth in our business. Any failure to increase our revenue sufficiently to keep pace with our investments and other expenses could prevent us from achieving or maintaining profitability or positive cash flow. Furthermore, if our future growth and operating performance fail to meet investor or analyst expectations, or if we have future negative cash flow or losses resulting from our investment in acquiring customers or expanding our operations, this could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.
As of June 30, 2021, Joby had approximately $351.6 million and $341.2 million of federal and state net operating loss carryforwards (“NOLs”) and $14.0 million and $12.6 million federal and state research and
 
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development tax credits. Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, federal NOLs generated by the Company in tax years through December 31, 2017 may be carried forward for 20 years and may fully offset taxable income in the year utilized and federal NOLs generated by the Company in tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 may be carried forward indefinitely but may only be used to offset 80% of our taxable income annually. Under Sections 382 and 383 of the Code, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” the corporation’s ability to use its
pre-change
federal NOLs and other tax attributes (such as research and development tax credits) to offset its
post-change
income and taxes may be limited. In general, an “ownership change” occurs if there is a greater than 50 percentage point change (by value) in a corporation’s equity ownership by certain stockholders over a rolling
three-year
period. We may have experienced ownership changes in the past and may experience ownership changes in the future as a result of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership (some of which shifts are outside our control). As a result, our ability to use our
pre-change
federal NOLs and other tax attributes to offset future taxable income and taxes could be subject to limitations. Similar provisions of state tax law may also apply. For these reasons, even if we achieve profitability, we may be unable to use a material portion of our NOLs and other tax attributes, which could adversely affect our future cash flows.
We may in the future invest significant resources in developing new offerings and exploring the application of our proprietary technologies for other uses and those opportunities may never materialize.
While our primary focus is on the design, manufacture and operation of our eVTOL aircraft and the related aerial mobility service, we may invest significant resources in developing new technologies, services, products and offerings. However, we may not realize the expected benefits of these investments. Relatedly, if such technologies become viable offerings in the future, we may be subject to competition from our competitors within the aviation industry or other industries, some of which may have substantially greater monetary and knowledge resources than we have and expect to have in the future to devote to the development of these technologies. Such competition or any limitations on our ability to take advantage of such technologies could impact our market share, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Such research and development initiatives may also have a high degree of risk and involve unproven business strategies and technologies with which we have limited operating or development experience. They may involve claims and liabilities, expenses, regulatory challenges and other risks that we may not be able to anticipate. There can be no assurance that consumer demand for such initiatives will exist or be sustained at the levels that we anticipate, or that any of these initiatives will gain sufficient traction or market acceptance to generate sufficient revenue to offset any new expenses or liabilities associated with these new investments. Further, any such research and development efforts could distract management from current operations and would divert capital and other resources from our more established technologies. Even if we were to be successful in developing new products, services, offerings or technologies, regulatory authorities may subject us to new rules or restrictions in response to our innovations that may increase our expenses or prevent us from successfully commercializing new products, services, offerings or technologies.
Any material disruption in our information systems could adversely affect our business.
We rely on information technology networks and systems to operate and manage our business. Our information technology networks and systems will process, transmit and store personal and financial information, proprietary information of our business, and also allow us to coordinate our business across our operation bases, and allow us to communicate with our employees and externally with customers, suppliers, partners and other third parties. While we believe we take reasonable steps to secure these information technology networks and systems, and the data processed, transmitted, and stored thereon, such networks, systems, and data may be susceptible to cyberattacks, viruses, malware, or other unauthorized access or damage (including by environmental, malicious, or negligent acts), which could result in unauthorized access to, or the release and public exposure of, our proprietary information. Any of the foregoing could cause substantial harm to our business, require us to make notifications to governmental authorities, or the media, and could result in litigation,
 
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investigations or inquiries by government authorities, or subject us to penalties, fines, and other losses relating to the investigation and remediation of such an attack or other unauthorized access or damage to our information technology systems and networks.
We are dependent on our senior management team and other highly skilled personnel, and if we are not successful in attracting or retaining highly qualified personnel, we may not be able to successfully implement our business strategy.
Our success depends, in significant part, on the continued services of our senior management team and on our ability to attract, motivate, develop and retain a sufficient number of other highly skilled personnel, including finance, marketing, sales, and technology and support personnel. The loss of any one or more members of our senior management team, for any reason, including resignation or retirement, could impair our ability to execute our business strategy and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected if we are unable to attract and retain skilled employees to support our operations and growth.
If we or our
third-party
service providers experience a security breach, or if unauthorized parties otherwise obtain access to our customers’ data, our reputation may be harmed, demand for services may be reduced, and we may incur significant liabilities.
Our services involve the storage, processing and transmission of data, including certain confidential and sensitive information. Any security breach, including those resulting from a cybersecurity attack, phishing attack, or any unauthorized access, unauthorized usage, virus or similar breach or disruption could result in the loss or destruction of or unauthorized access to, or use, alteration, disclosure, or acquisition of, data, damage to our reputation, litigation, regulatory investigations, or other liabilities. These attacks may come from individual hackers, criminal groups, and
state-sponsored
organizations. If our security measures are breached as a result of
third-party
action, employee error, a defect or bug in our products or those of our
third-party
service providers, malfeasance or otherwise and, as a result, someone obtains unauthorized access to our data, including our confidential, sensitive, or other information about individuals, or any of these types of information is lost, destroyed, or used, altered, disclosed, or acquired without authorization, our reputation may be damaged, our business may suffer, and we could incur significant liability. Even the perception of inadequate security may damage our reputation and negatively impact our ability to win new customers and retain and receive timely payments from existing customers. Further, we could be required to expend significant capital and other resources to address any data security incident or breach, which may not be covered or fully covered by our insurance and which may involve payments for investigations, forensic analyses, legal advice, public relations advice, system repair or replacement, or other services.
We engage
third-party
vendors and service providers to store and otherwise process our data, including confidential, sensitive, and other information about individuals. Our vendors and service providers may also be the targets of cyberattacks, malicious software, phishing schemes, and fraud. Our ability to monitor our vendors and service providers’ data security is limited, and, in any event, third parties may be able to circumvent those security measures, resulting in the unauthorized access to, misuse, acquisition, disclosure, loss, alteration, or destruction of our data, including confidential, sensitive, and other information about individuals.
Techniques used to sabotage or obtain unauthorized access to systems or networks are constantly evolving and, in some instances, are not identified until after they have been launched against a target. We and our service providers may be unable to anticipate these techniques, react in a timely manner, or implement adequate preventative and mitigating measures. If we are unable to efficiently and effectively maintain and upgrade our system safeguards, we may incur unexpected costs and certain of our systems may become more vulnerable to unauthorized access or disruption.
 
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Operations and Infrastructure
If we are unable to obtain and maintain adequate facilities and infrastructure, including securing access to key infrastructure such as airports, we may be unable to offer our service in a way that is useful to passengers.
To operate and expand our proposed aerial ridesharing service, we must secure or otherwise develop adequate landing infrastructure for our aircraft. As airports and heliports around the world become more congested, it may not be possible for us to ensure that our plans for new service can be implemented in a commercially viable manner given infrastructure constraints, including those imposed by inadequate facilities at desirable locations. Access to airports, heliports, and skyports may be prohibitively expensive, not available at all, or may be inconsistent with our projections. Additionally, there is no assurance that we will be able to obtain necessary approvals and to make necessary infrastructure changes to enable adoption of our aircraft, including installation of necessary charging equipment. Any limitation on our ability to acquire or maintain space for passenger terminal operations could prevent our service from being practical for our customers and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our advanced air mobility service will depend on our ability to develop and operate skyports in desirable locations in metropolitan locations. Developing and operating skyport locations will require permits and approvals from federal, state, and local regulatory authorities and government bodies and our ability to operate our service will depend on such permits and approvals. We cannot predict whether we will receive such permits and approvals, whether we will receive them for desirable locations, or whether we will receive them in a timely manner. If we are prohibited, restricted or delayed from developing and operating desirable skyport locations, our business could be adversely affected.
There is a shortage of pilots and mechanics which could increase our operating costs and reduce our ability to deploy our service at scale.
There is a shortage of pilots that is expected to exacerbate over time as more pilots in the industry approach mandatory retirement age. Similarly, trained and qualified aircraft mechanics are also in short supply. This will affect the aviation industry, including UAM services and more specifically, our business. Our service is dependent on recruiting and retaining pilots qualified to operate our aircraft and mechanics qualified to perform the requisite maintenance activities, either or both of which may be difficult due to the corresponding personnel shortages. We compete against airlines and other air mobility and transportation services for pilots and other skilled labor, some of which will offer wages or benefit packages exceeding ours. If we are unable to hire, train, and retain qualified pilots and qualified mechanics, our business could be harmed, and we may be unable to implement our growth plans.
Our aircraft utilization may be lower than expected and our aircraft may be limited in its performance during certain weather conditions.
Our aircraft may not be able to fly safely in poor weather conditions, including snowstorms, thunderstorms, lightning, hail, known icing conditions and/or fog. Our inability to operate in these conditions will reduce our aircraft utilization and cause delays and disruptions in our services. We intend to maintain a high daily aircraft utilization rate which is the amount of time our aircraft spend in the air carrying passengers. High daily aircraft utilization is achieved in part by reducing turnaround times at skyports so we can fly more hours on average in a day. Aircraft utilization is reduced by delays and cancellations from various factors, many of which are beyond our control, including adverse weather conditions, security requirements, air traffic congestion and unscheduled maintenance events. The success of our business is dependent, in part, on the utilization rate of our aircraft and reductions in utilization will adversely impact our financial performance as well as cause passenger dissatisfaction.
 
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Our aircraft may require maintenance at frequencies or at costs which are unexpected and could adversely impact our business and operations.
Our aircraft are highly technical products that require maintenance and support. We are still developing our understanding of the
long-term
maintenance profile of the aircraft, and if useful lifetimes are shorter than expected, this may lead to greater maintenance costs than previously anticipated. If our aircraft and related equipment require maintenance more frequently than we plan for or at costs that exceed our estimates, that would disrupt the operation of our service and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our intended initial operations are concentrated in a small number of metropolitan areas and airports which makes our business particularly susceptible to natural disasters, outbreaks and pandemics, growth constraints, economic, social, weather, and regulatory conditions or other circumstances affecting these metropolitan areas.
We intend to initially service larger metropolitan areas that will be the source of the majority of our revenue. As a result of our intended geographic concentration, our business and financial results are particularly susceptible to natural disasters, outbreaks and pandemics, growth constraints, economic, social, weather, and regulatory conditions or other circumstances applicable to metropolitan areas. A significant interruption or disruption in service at a skyport where we have a significant volume of flights could result in the cancellation or delay of a significant portion of our flights and, as a result, could have a severe impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, any changes to local laws or regulations within key metropolitan areas that affect our ability to operate or increase our operating expenses in these markets would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.
Disruption of operations at skyports, whether caused by labor relations, utility or communications issues, power outages, or changes in federal, state and local regulatory requirements could harm our business. Certain airports may regulate our flight operations at airports, such as limiting the number of landings per year, which could reduce our operations. Bans on our operations at airports or the introduction of any new permitting requirements would significantly disrupt our operations. In addition, demand for our advanced air mobility services could be impacted if
drop-offs
or
pick-ups
of fliers become inconvenient because of airport rules or regulations, or more expensive for fliers because of
airport-imposed
fees, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
Our concentration in large metropolitan areas and heavily trafficked airports also makes our business susceptible to an outbreak of a contagious disease, such as the Ebola virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, H1N1 influenza virus, avian flu, Zika virus,
COVID-19
or any other similar illness, both due to the risk of a contagious disease being introduced into the metropolitan area through the high volume of travelers flying into and out of such airports and the ease at which contagious diseases can spread through densely populated areas, as seen with the spread of
COVID-19.
We are subject to risks associated with climate change, including the potential increased impacts of severe weather events on our operations and infrastructure.
The potential physical effects of climate change, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, floods, fires, fog, mist, freezing conditions,
sea-level
rise and other
climate-related
events, could affect our operations, infrastructure and financial results. We could incur significant costs to improve the climate resiliency of its infrastructure and otherwise prepare for, respond to, and mitigate such physical effects of climate change. We are not able to accurately predict the materiality of any potential losses or costs associated with the physical effects of climate change.
 
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Developing a skyport network to support a
high-volume
service will require significant expenditures in capital improvements and operating expenses, either directly or indirectly, and the ongoing need to maintain existing operational facilities will require us to expend capital.
Our proposed operations contemplate significant infrastructure development and additional skyports where our aircraft can land, both within the United States and internationally. Construction of a skyport or other facilities in which we conduct our operations may require significant capital expenditures to develop, and in the future we may be required to make similar expenditures to expand, improve or construct adequate facilities for our operations. In addition to the capital required, there is also a complex patchwork of federal, regional and municipal regulatory considerations applicable to property development in general, and aviation infrastructure in particular. Applicable regulations can vary widely by locality. Local community groups, some of which may be opposed to property development in general, and new aviation infrastructure in particular, can impact the application of these regulations or the development of new regulations. We cannot assure that the capital and regulatory resources needed to develop a skyport network will be available to us on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all.
In addition, as skyport and other facilities we may utilize mature, our business will require capital expenditures for the maintenance, renovation and improvement of such existing locations to remain competitive and maintain the value of our brand. This creates an ongoing need for capital, and, to the extent we cannot fund capital expenditures from cash flows from operations, we will need to borrow or otherwise obtain funds. If we cannot access the capital we need, we may not be able to execute on our growth strategy, take advantage of future opportunities or respond to competitive pressures. If the costs of funding new locations or renovations or enhancements at existing locations exceed budgeted amounts or the time for building or renovation is longer than anticipated, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
We are subject to many hazards and operational risks that can disrupt our business, including interruptions or disruptions in service at our facilities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our operations are subject to many hazards and operational risks inherent to our business, including general business risks, product liability and damage to third parties, our infrastructure or properties that may be caused by fires, floods and other natural disasters, power losses, telecommunications failures, terrorist attacks (including hijacking, use of the aircraft as a weapon, or use of the aircraft to disperse a chemical or biological agent), catastrophic loss due to security related incidents, human errors and similar events. Additionally, our manufacturing operations are hazardous at times and may expose us to safety risks, including environmental risks and health and safety hazards to our employees or third parties.
Financial
We have broad discretion in how we use the net proceeds from the Merger, and we may not use them effectively.
We cannot specify with any certainty the particular uses of the net proceeds that we will receive from this offering. Our management has broad discretion in applying the net proceeds we received upon consummation of the Merger. We may use the net proceeds for general corporate purposes, including working capital, operating expenses, and capital expenditures, and we may use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire complementary businesses, products, offerings, or technologies. We may also spend or invest these proceeds in a way with which our stockholders disagree. If our management fails to use these funds effectively, our business could be seriously harmed.
 
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If securities or industry analysts either do not publish research about us, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about us, our business, or our market, or, if such analysts change their recommendations regarding our common stock adversely, the trading price or trading volume of our common stock could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will be influenced in part by the research and reports that securities or industry analysts may publish about us, our business, our market, or our competitors. If one or more of the analysts initiate research with an unfavorable rating or downgrade our common stock, provide more favorable recommendations about our competitors, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our common stock price would likely decline. If any analyst who may cover us were to cease coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause the trading price or trading volume of our common stock to decline.
Our need for and the availability of additional capital.
Prior to the consummation of the Merger, we have financed our operations and capital expenditures primarily through private financing rounds. In the future, we could be required to raise capital through public or private financing or other arrangements. Such financing may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all, and our failure to raise capital when needed could harm our business. For example, the global
COVID-19
health crisis and related financial impact has resulted in, and may continue to result in, significant disruption and volatility of global financial markets that could adversely impact our ability to access capital. We may sell equity securities or debt securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner as we may determine from time to time. If we sell any such securities in subsequent transactions, our current investors may be materially diluted. Any debt financing, if available, may involve restrictive covenants and could reduce our operational flexibility or profitability. If we cannot raise funds on acceptable terms, we may not be able to grow our business or respond to competitive pressures.
We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting and may identify additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal control, which may result in material misstatements of our financial statements or cause us to fail to meet our periodic reporting obligations.
In connection with the audit of our consolidated financial statements, we identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. The material weakness relates to the lack of a sufficient
full-time
accounting personnel with deep technical accounting knowledge to execute, review and approve all aspects of the financial statement close and reporting process. This material weakness may not allow for us to have proper segregation of duties and the ability to close our books and records and report our results, including required disclosures, on a timely basis.
We are in the process of designing and implementing measures to improve our internal control over financial reporting to remediate the material weakness, primarily by implementing additional review procedures within our accounting and finance department, hiring additional staff, designing more robust processes and controls and, if appropriate, engaging external accounting experts to supplement our internal resources in our computation and review processes. While we are designing and implementing measures to remediate the material weakness, we cannot predict the success of such measures or the outcome of our assessment of these measures at this time. We can give no assurance that these measures will remediate identified material weaknesses in internal control or that additional material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting will not be identified in the future. Our failure to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could result in errors in our financial statements that may lead to a restatement of our financial statements or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations.
As a public company, and if we do not meet the definition of an emerging growth company, we will be required, pursuant to Section 404 of the
Sarbanes-Oxley
Act, to furnish a report by management on, among other
 
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things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting for each annual report on Form
10-K
to be filed with the SEC. This assessment will need to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting. Our independent registered public accounting firm will also be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in each annual report on Form
10-K
to be filed with the SEC. We will be required to disclose changes made in our internal control and procedures on a quarterly basis. To comply with the requirements of being a public company, we expect to need to undertake various actions, such as implementing new internal controls and procedures and hiring accounting or internal audit staff. Failure to comply with the
Sarbanes-Oxley
Act could potentially subject us to sanctions or investigations by the SEC, the NYSE or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources. We have begun the costly and challenging process of compiling the system and processing documentation necessary to perform the evaluation needed to comply with Section 404, but we may not be able to complete our evaluation, testing and any required remediation in a timely fashion.
Additional Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
The price of our common stock and warrants may be volatile.
The price of our common stock, as well as our warrants, may fluctuate due to a variety of factors, including:
 
   
changes in the industries in which we and our customers operate;
 
   
developments involving our competitors;
 
   
changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;
 
   
variations in our operating performance and the performance of our competitors in general;
 
   
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly or annual operating results;
 
   
publication of research reports by securities analysts about us or our competitors or our industry;
 
   
the public’s reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;
 
   
actions by stockholders, including the sale by the Third Party PIPE Investors of any of their shares of our common stock;
 
   
additions and departures of key personnel;
 
   
commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving our company;
 
   
changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;
 
   
the volume of shares of our common stock available for public sale; and
 
   
general economic and political conditions, such as the effects of the
COVID-19
outbreak, recessions, interest rates, local and national elections, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations, corruption, political instability and acts of war or terrorism.
These market and industry factors may materially reduce the market price of our common stock and warrants regardless of our operating performance.
We do not intend to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future.
We currently intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to finance the further development and expansion of our business and do not intend to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, restrictions contained in future agreements and financing instruments, business prospects and such other factors as our board of directors deems relevant.
 
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If analysts do not publish research about our business or if they publish inaccurate or unfavorable research, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our common stock will depend in part on the research and reports that analysts publish about our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our common stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our common stock would likely decline. If few analysts cover us, demand for our common stock could decrease and our common stock price and trading volume may decline. Similar results may occur if one or more of these analysts stop covering us in the future or fail to publish reports on us regularly.
We may be subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert management attention.
The market price of our common stock may be volatile and, in the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention from other business concerns, which could seriously harm our business.
Future resales of common stock may cause the market price of our securities to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.
The Sponsor and the Joby Stockholders are contractually restricted from selling or transferring any of its shares of common stock (not including the shares of our common stock issued in the PIPE Investment pursuant to the terms of the Subscription Agreements or purchased in the public market) (the
“Lock-up
Shares”) for certain periods of time. Under the Major Company Equityholders
Lock-Up
Agreement, such lockup restrictions applicable to the Major Company Equityholders’
Lock-up
Shares began at the Closing and end in tranches of 20% of the Major Company Equityholders’
Lock-up
Shares at each of (i) the earlier of (x) the one year anniversary of Closing or (y) the date on which the last reported sale price of our common stock equals or exceeds $12.00 per share for any 20 trading days within any
30-trading
day period commencing at least 150 days after the Closing, (ii) the
two-year
anniversary of the Closing, (iii) the
three-year
anniversary of the Closing, (iv) the
four-year
anniversary of the Closing and (v) the
five-year
anniversary of the Closing. If we complete a transaction that results in a change of control, the Major Company Equityholders’
Lock-up
Shares are released from restriction immediately prior to such change of control. Under the Sponsor Agreement, the Sponsor’s
Lock-up
Shares are subject to the same releases as the Major Company Equityholders’
Lock-up
Shares.
Under the Other Company Equityholders
Lock-Up
Agreement, such lockup restrictions applicable to the Other Company Equityholders’
Lock-up
Shares begin at the Closing and end on the earlier of (a) the one year anniversary of Closing or (b) after Closing (x) the date on which the last reported sale price of our common stock equals or exceeds $12.00 per share for any 20 trading days within any
30-trading
day period commencing at least 150 days after the Closing or (y) the date on which we complete a transaction that results in a change of control.
Under the Bylaws, such lockup restrictions applicable to all the Joby Stockholders’
Lock-up
Shares began at the Closing and end on the date that is 180 days following the Closing, but 4,986,800 of the
Lock-up
Shares held by certain tenured employees of Joby were automatically released from such restrictions on the date of Closing.
However, following the expiration of each lockup, the applicable stockholders will not be restricted from selling shares of our common stock held by them, other than by applicable securities laws. Additionally, the Third Party PIPE Investors will not be restricted from selling any of their shares of our common stock following the closing of the Business Combination, other than by applicable securities laws. As such, sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our common stock. Upon completion of the Business Combination, the Sponsor and the Joby Stockholders will collectively own approximately 80.72% of the outstanding shares of our common stock
 
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(including the shares of Joby common stock reserved in respect of Joby Awards outstanding as of immediately prior to the Closing that will be converted into awards based on our common stock), assuming that no additional public shareholders redeem their public shares in connection with the Business Combination. Assuming redemption of approximately 60,000,274 public shares are redeemed in connection with the Business Combination, in the aggregate, the ownership of the Sponsor and the Joby Stockholders would rise to 88.55% of the outstanding shares of our common stock (including the shares of Joby common stock reserved in respect of Joby Awards outstanding as of immediately prior to the Closing that will be converted into awards based on our common stock).
As restrictions on resale end and registration statements (filed after the Closing to provide for the resale of such shares from time to time) are available for use, the sale or possibility of sale of these shares could have the effect of increasing the volatility in our share price or the market price of our common stock could decline if the holders of currently restricted shares sell them or are perceived by the market as intending to sell them.
We are an emerging growth company and a smaller reporting company within the meaning of the Securities Act, and if we take advantage of certain exemptions from disclosure requirements available to emerging growth companies or smaller reporting companies, this could make our securities less attractive to investors and may make it more difficult to compare our performance with other public companies.
We are an “emerging growth company” within the meaning of the Securities Act, as modified by the JOBS Act, and we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the
Sarbanes-Oxley
Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. As a result, our shareholders may not have access to certain information they may deem important. We could be an emerging growth company for up to five years, although circumstances could cause us to lose that status earlier, including if the market value of our ordinary shares held by
non-affiliates
exceeds $700 million as of the end of any second quarter of a fiscal year, in which case we would no longer be an emerging growth company as of the end of such fiscal year. We cannot predict whether investors will find our securities less attractive because we will rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our securities less attractive as a result of our reliance on these exemptions, the trading prices of our securities may be lower than they otherwise would be, there may be a less active trading market for our securities and the trading prices of our securities may be more volatile.
Further, Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a Securities Act registration statement declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to
non-emerging
growth companies but any such election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make it difficult or impossible to compare our financial results with the financial results of another public company that is either not an emerging growth company or is an emerging growth company that has chosen not to take advantage of the extended transition period exemptions because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.
Additionally, we are a “smaller reporting company” as defined in Item 10(f)(1) of Regulation
S-K.
Smaller reporting companies may take advantage of certain reduced disclosure obligations, including, among other things, providing only two years of audited financial statements. We will remain a smaller reporting company
 
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until the last day of the fiscal year in which (1) the market value of our ordinary shares held by
non-affiliates
equals or exceeds $250 million as of the end of that year’s second fiscal quarter, and (2) our annual revenues equaled or exceeded $100 million during such completed fiscal year or the market value of our ordinary shares held by
non-affiliates
equals or exceeds $700 million as of the end of that year’s second fiscal quarter. To the extent we take advantage of such reduced disclosure obligations, it may also make comparison of our financial statements with other public companies difficult or impossible.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
All of the shares of common stock and warrants offered by the Selling Shareholders will be sold by them for their respective accounts. We will not receive any of the proceeds from these sales.
The Selling Shareholders will pay any underwriting fees, discounts, selling commissions, stock transfer taxes and certain legal expenses incurred by such Selling Shareholders in disposing of their shares of common stock and warrants, and we will bear all other costs, fees and expenses incurred in effecting the registration of such securities covered by this prospectus, including, without limitation, all registration and filing fees, NYSE listing fees and fees and expenses of our counsel and our independent registered public accountants.
We will receive any proceeds from the exercise of the warrants for cash, but not from the sale of the shares of common stock issuable upon such exercise.
 
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MARKET PRICE OF OUR COMMON STOCK AND DIVIDEND INFORMATION
Market Price of Our Common Stock
Our common stock is listed on NYSE under the symbol “JOBY.”
On August 13, 2021, the closing price of our common stock was $9.50. As of August 13, 2021, there were 603,887,944 shares of our common stock outstanding, held of record by 490 holders.
Dividend Policy
We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock to date and prior to the Business Combination, RTP had not paid any dividends on its ordinary shares. The payment of cash dividends in the future will be dependent upon our revenues and earnings, if any, capital requirements and general financial condition. The payment of any cash dividends will be within the discretion of our board of directors. Our ability to declare dividends may be limited by the terms of financing or other agreements entered into by us or our subsidiaries from time to time.
 
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UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED FINANCIAL INFORMATION
The following unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared in accordance with Article 11 of
Regulation S-X, as
amended by the Final Rule, Release
No. 33-10786,
“Amendments to the Financial Disclosures about Acquired and Disposed Businesses,” and presents the combination of the historical financial information of RTP and Joby adjusted to give effect to the Business Combination and the other events contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement.
RTP is a blank check company formed for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization or other similar business combination with one or more businesses.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined balance sheet as of June 30, 2021 combines the historical balance sheet of RTP as of June 30, 2021 and the historical consolidated balance sheet of Joby as of June 30, 2021 on a pro forma basis as if the Business Combination and related transactions, summarized below, had been consummated on June 30, 2021.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statement of operations for the six months ended June 30, 2021 combines the historical unaudited condensed statement of operations of RTP for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and the historical unaudited condensed consolidated statement of operations of Joby for the six months ended June 30, 2021. The unaudited pro forma condensed combined statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 combines the historical statements of operation of RTP for the period from July 3, 2020 (inception) through December 31, 2020 and the historical consolidated statement of operations of Joby for the year ended December 31, 2020 on a pro forma basis as if the Business Combination and related transactions, contemplated by the Merger Agreement, had been consummated on January 1, 2020, the beginning of the earliest period presented.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information was derived from and should be read in conjunction with the following historical financial statements and the accompanying notes, which are included elsewhere in this prospectus:
 
   
the (a) historical audited financial statements of RTP as of December 31, 2020 and for the period from July 3, 2020 through December 31, 2020 and (b) historical unaudited condensed financial statements of RTP as of and for the six months ended June 30, 2021;
 
   
the (a) historical audited consolidated financial statements of Joby as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020 and (b) historical unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of Joby as of and for the six months ended June 30, 2021; and
 
   
other information relating to RTP and Joby included in this prospectus and incorporated by reference, including the Business Combination Agreement and the description of certain terms thereof set forth under the section entitled “The Business Combination” herein
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information should be read together with the sections titled “RTP’s Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and “Joby’s Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and other financial information included elsewhere in this prospectus and incorporated herein.
The pro forma condensed combined financial information may not be useful in predicting the future financial condition and results of operations of Joby Aviation following the Closing. The actual financial position and results of operations may differ significantly from the pro forma amounts reflected herein due to a variety of factors.
 
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Description of the Transactions
The Domestication, Merger, PIPE Investment and accompanying transactions may be summarized as follows:
 
   
RTP will change its jurisdiction of incorporation from the Cayman Islands to the State of Delaware;
 
   
RTP entered into the Merger Agreement with Merger Sub and Joby, pursuant to which, among other things, following the Domestication, (i) Merger Sub will merge with and into Joby, the separate corporate existence of Merger Sub will cease and Joby will be the surviving corporation and a wholly owned subsidiary of RTP, and RTP will be renamed Joby Aviation, Inc.;
 
   
Upon the consummation of the Merger, Joby’s equityholders will receive or have the right to receive an aggregate of 500,000,000 shares of Joby Aviation common stock (at a deemed value of $10.00 per share), which, in the case of Joby Awards, will be shares underlying awards based on Joby Aviation common stock, representing a
pre-transaction
equity value of Joby of $5.0 billion (such total number of shares of Joby Aviation common stock, the “Aggregate Merger Consideration”). Accordingly, an estimated 468,837,874 shares of Joby Aviation common stock will be immediately issued and outstanding, based on Joby’s capital stock balance as of August 3, 2021 and
 
   
An estimated 22,487,113 shares will be reserved for the potential future issuance of Joby Aviation common stock upon the exercise of Joby Aviation Options and an estimated 10,204,260 shares will be reserved for the potential future issuance of Joby Aviation common stock upon the settlement of Joby Aviation RSU Awards based on the following transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement;
 
   
the conversion of all outstanding Joby Options into options exercisable for shares of Joby Aviation common stock with the same terms except for the number of shares exercisable and the exercise price, each of which will be adjusted using the Exchange Ratio;
 
   
the conversion of all outstanding Joby RSU Awards into awards of restricted stock units based on shares of Joby Aviation common stock with the same terms, except the number of restricted stock units comprising the award will be adjusted using the Exchange Ratio;
 
   
Joby Aviation will issue 7,716,780 shares of Joby Aviation common stock to the holder of the Uber Note (the Uber Note will automatically be converted into a number of shares of Joby capital stock immediately prior to the Merger, which will be cancelled and converted into the right to receive such 7,716,780 shares of Joby Aviation common stock based on the Exchange Ratio);
 
   
Joby Aviation will issue and sell 83,500,000 shares of Joby Aviation common stock at $10.00 per share to the PIPE Investors pursuant to the PIPE Investment; and
 
   
17,130,000 shares of Joby Aviation common stock issued as a result of conversion of 17,130,000 Class B ordinary shares of RTP owned by the Sponsor in the Domestication will be immediately subject to the certain vesting provisions (such shares further referred to as “Sponsor Shares”).
Accounting for the Business Combination
The Business Combination is expected to be accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, in accordance with GAAP. Under this method of accounting, RTP is expected to be treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the financial statements of Joby Aviation will represent a continuation of the financial statements of Joby, with the Business Combination being treated as the equivalent of Joby issuing stock for the net assets of RTP, accompanied by a recapitalization whereby no goodwill or other intangible assets are recorded, net assets of RTP being presented at historical costs. Operations prior to the Business Combination will be presented as those of Joby.
The unvested Sponsor Shares are expected be classified as a liability measured at fair value as at the date of the Merger, subject to subsequent remeasurement at each reporting date until the liability is settled in accordance
 
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with the vesting terms or the expiration of the Measurement Period. All outstanding capital stock of Joby, including shares issued as a result of the automatic exercise of SVB Warrants and
In-Q-Tel
Warrants and the automatic conversion of the Uber Note, will be converted into shares of common stock of Joby Aviation, with the corresponding increase in the par value of common stock being recognized against additional
paid-in
capital. Outstanding vested and unvested share-based awards of Joby (including options and RSUs) will be converted into the right to exercise such awards for common shares of Joby Aviation, adjusted proportionately based on the Exchange Ratio. Because no terms of such share-based awards are modified upon consummation of the Business Combination, no accounting impact for such outstanding awards is expected. Public and private warrants of RTP are not expected to be modified as a result of the Business Combination, resulting in no accounting impact upon consummation of Business Combination.
Basis of Pro Forma Presentation
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been prepared in accordance with Article 11 of Regulation
S-X,
as amended by the Final Rule, Release
No. 33-10786,
“Amendments to Financial Disclosures about Acquired and Disposed Businesses.” The adjustments in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information have been identified and presented to provide relevant information of Joby Aviation upon consummation of the Business Combination and other events contemplated by the Merger Agreement. Assumptions and estimates underlying the unaudited pro forma adjustments set forth in the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information are described in the accompanying notes.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information has been presented for illustrative purposes only and is not necessarily indicative of the operating results and financial position that would have been achieved had the Business Combination occurred on the dates indicated. Any additional Business Combination proceeds remaining after the payment of underwriter fees and payment of transaction costs related to the Merger are expected to be used for other general corporate purposes. Further, the unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information does not purport to project the future operating results or financial position of Joby Aviation following the completion of the Business Combination. The unaudited pro forma adjustments represent management’s estimates based on information available as of the date of these unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information and are subject to change as additional information becomes available and analyses are performed. RTP and Joby have not had any historical relationship prior to the transactions. Accordingly, no pro forma adjustments were required to eliminate activities between the companies.
The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information reflects RTP stockholders’ approval of the Business Combination on August 5, 2021, and that RTP’s public stockholders holding 42,416,710 shares have elected to redeem their shares prior to the Closing.
The following summarizes the pro forma Joby Aviation common stock issued and outstanding immediately after the Business Combination:
 
    
Pro Forma Combined
 
    
Number of
Shares
    
Percentage
of
Outstanding
Shares
 
Joby Aviation Stockholders
(1)
     486,654,654        80.59  
RTP’s public shareholders
     26,583,290        4.40  
Sponsor, its related parties and RTP independent directors
(2)
     28,750,000        4.76  
Third Party PIPE Investors
     61,900,000        10.25  
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
Total
     603,887,944        100.00  
    
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
(1)
Includes (a) 468,837,874 shares expected to be issued to existing Joby common and preferred shareholders (including holders of the Joby Warrants, which will convert into Joby capital stock immediately prior to the
 
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  Business Combination), 8,797,780 shares of which are subject to repurchase related to early exercised stock options and unvested restricted stock awards (of which restricted stock awards are 492,650), (b) 10,100,000 shares subscribed for by the Joby PIPE Investors and (c) 7,716,780 shares expected to be issued to the holder of the Uber Note. These share amounts may not sum due to rounding.
(2)
Includes 17,130,000 shares held by the Sponsor (the “Sponsor Shares”) (assuming such shares were fully vested), 11,500,000 shares subscribed for by the Sponsor Related PIPE Investors and 120,000 shares held by the current independent directors of RTP. The Sponsor Shares are subject to a vesting schedule with 20% of the Sponsor Shares vesting in tranches when the VWAP of the Joby Aviation common stock is greater than $12.00, $18.00, $24.00, $32.00 and $50.00 for any 20 trading days within a period of 30 trading days. After 10 years following the Closing, the Sponsor agrees to forfeit any Sponsor Shares which have not yet vested.
 
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UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED BALANCE SHEET
AS OF JUNE 30, 2021
(in thousands)
 
    
Joby Aero,

Inc.

(Historical)
    
Reinvent

(Historical)
    
Transaction

Accounting

Adjustments
          
Pro Forma

Combined
 
ASSETS
                                           
Current assets:
                                           
Cash and cash equivalents
   $ 44,264      $ 479      $ 690,046    
 
B
 
   $ 1,064,803  
                         (239  
 
C
 
        
                         (24,150  
 
D
 
        
                         835,000    
 
E
 
        
                         (8,469  
 
P
 
        
                         (47,931  
 
O
 
        
                         (424,197  
 
H
 
        
           
Short term marketable securities
     375,210        —          —                  375,210  
Other receivables
     3,920        —          —                  3,920  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
     7,113        353        —                  7,466  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
            
 
 
 
Total current assets
     430,507        832        1,020,060                1,451,399  
Investments held in Trust account
     —          690,046        (690,046  
 
B
 
     —    
Equity method investment
     13,097        —          —                  13,097  
Restricted cash
     762        —          —                  762  
Property and equipment, net
     41,552        —          —                  41,552  
Intangible assets
     14,779        —          —                  14,779  
Deferred offering costs
     5,170        —          (5,170  
 
S
 
     —    
Goodwill
     4,880        —          —                  4,880  
Other
non-current
assets
     55,330        —          —                  55,330  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
            
 
 
 
Total Assets
   $ 566,077      $ 690,878      $ 324,844              $ 1,581,799  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
            
 
 
 
LIABILITIES, REDEEMABLE CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK, AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)
                                           
Current liabilities:
                                           
Accounts payable
     5,531        241        (1,280  
 
O
 
     4,265  
                         (227  
 
P
 
        
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
     5,875        875        44,382    
 
M
 
     4,120  
                         (46,651  
 
O
 
        
                         (361  
 
P
 
        
Capital leases, current portion
     415        —          —                  415  
Deferred rent, current portion
     340        —          —                  340  
Debt, current
     254        —          —                  254  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
            
 
 
 
Total current liabilities
     12,415        1,116        (4,137              9,394  
Deferred legal fees
     —          239        (239  
 
C
 
     —    
Debt, noncurrent
     77,113        —          (76,296  
 
K
 
     817  
Deferred rent, net of current portion
     1,136        —                           1,136  
Deferred underwriting commissions
     —          24,150        (24,150  
 
D
 
     —    
Derivative liability
     —          —          149,939    
 
F
 
     149,939  
Derivative warrant liabilities
     —          56,315                         56,315  
Capital leases, net of current portion
     1,529        —                           1,529  
Warrant liability
     627        —          (627  
 
R
 
     —    
Stock repurchase liability
     1,022        —                           1,022  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
            
 
 
 
Total liabilities
     93,842        81,820        44,490                220,152  
    
 
 
    
 
 
    
 
 
            
 
 
 
 
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Joby Aero,

Inc.

(Historical)
   
Reinvent

(Historical)
   
Transaction

Accounting

Adjustments
          
Pro Forma

Combined
 
Commitments and contingencies
                                         
Redeemable convertible preferred stock — subject to possible redemption
     845,931       —         (845,931  
 
L
 
     —    
           
Common shares subject to possible redemption
     —         604,058       (604,058  
 
A
 
     —    
Stockholders’ equity (deficit):
                                         
Common Stock
     —                 8    
 
E
 
     61  
                       9    
 
G
 
        
                       34    
 
L
 
        
                       13    
 
J
 
        
                       (4  
 
I
 
        
                       1    
 
K
 
        
           
Class A Common Stock
     —         1       6    
 
A
 
     —    
                       (7  
 
G
 
        
                       (4  
 
H
 
        
                       4    
 
I
 
        
           
Class B Common Stock
     —         2       (2  
 
G
 
     —    
Joby Aero Common Stock
     —         —         —      
 
J
 
     —    
                       —      
 
N
 
        
           
Additional
paid-in
capital
     28,845       27,466       604,052    
 
A
 
     1,764,999  
                       (149,939  
 
F
 
        
                       834,992    
 
E
 
        
                       (44,382  
 
M
 
        
                       —      
 
N
 
        
                       (30,350  
 
Q
 
        
                       845,897    
 
L
 
        
                       (13  
 
J
 
        
                       (424,193  
 
H
 
        
                       77,167    
 
K
 
        
                       627    
 
R
 
        
                       (5,170  
 
S
 
        
           
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
     256       —         —                  256  
Retained Earnings (Accumulated deficit)
     (402,797     (22,469     30,350    
 
Q
 
     (403,669
                       (7,881  
 
P
 
        
                       (872  
 
K
 
        
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
            
 
 
 
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)
     (373,696     5,000       1,730,343                1,361,647  
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
            
 
 
 
Total liabilities, redeemable convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ equity (deficit)
   $ 566,077     $ 690,878     $ 324,844              $ 1,581,799  
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
            
 
 
 
 
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UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020
(in thousands)
 
    
Year Ended

December 31,
2020
   
For the Period
from

July 3, 2020
(inception)
through
December 31,
2020
                    
    
Joby Aero,

Inc.
(Historical)
   
Reinvent

(Historical)
   
Transaction
Accounting
Adjustments
          
Pro Forma

Combined
 
Operating expenses:
                                         
Research and development
   $ 108,741     $ —       $ —                $ 108,741  
Selling, general and administrative
     23,495       1,105       7,881    
 
P
 
     32,481  
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
            
 
 
 
Total operating expenses
     132,236       1,105       7,881                141,222  
Loss from operations
     (132,236     (1,105     (7,881              (141,222
Interest income
     5,428       —         —                  5,428  
Interest expense
     (249     —         —                  (249
Gain from deconsolidation of a subsidiary
     6,904       —         —                  6,904  
Income from equity method investment
     5,799       —         —                  5,799  
Unrealized gain on investments held in Trust Account
     —         171       (171  
 
AA
 
     —    
Financing costs — derivative warrant liabilities
     —         (1,289                      (1,289
Change in fair value of derivative warrant liabilities
     —         (61,680                      (61,680
Other income (expense), net
     221       —         —                  221  
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
            
 
 
 
Net income (loss) before income taxes
     (114,133     (63,903     (8,052              (186,088
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
            
 
 
 
Provision for income taxes
     31       —                          31  
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
            
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
   $ (114,164   $ (63,903   $ (8,052            $ (186,119
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
            
 
 
 
Weighted average shares outstanding of Class A Common Stock
             69,000,000                           
Basic and diluted net loss per share- Class A
           $ —                             
Weighted average shares outstanding of Class B Common Stock
             17,250,000                           
Basic and diluted net loss per share- Class B
           $ (3.70                         
Weighted average shares outstanding of Joby Aero Common Stock
     30,066,847                                   
Basic and diluted net loss per share- Joby Aero
   $ (3.80                                 
Weighted average shares outstanding of Joby Aviation Common Stock
                                      577,960,162  
Basic and diluted net loss per share of JobyAviation
                                    $ (0.32
 
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UNAUDITED PRO FORMA CONDENSED COMBINED STATEMENT OF OPERATIONS
FOR THE SIX MONTHS ENDED JUNE 30, 2021
(in thousands)
 
    
Joby Aero,

Inc.
(Historical)
   
Reinvent

(Historical)
   
Transaction
Accounting
Adjustments
          
Pro Forma

Combined
 
Operating expenses:
                                         
Research and development
   $ 88,218     $ —       $ —                  88,218  
Selling, general and administrative
     25,980       2,295       —                  28,275  
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
            
 
 
 
Total operating expenses
     114,198       2,295       —                  116,493  
Loss from operations
     (114,198     (2,295     —                  (116,493
Interest income
     672       —         —                  672  
Interest expense
     (1,904     —         —                  (1,904
Income from equity method investment
     8,891       —         —                  8,891  
Unrealized gain on investments held in Trust Account
     —         105       (105  
 
AA
 
     —    
Change in fair value of derivative warrant liabilities
     —         43,623                        43,623  
Other income (expense), net
     37       —         —                  37  
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
            
 
 
 
Net income (loss) before income taxes
     (106,502     41,433       (105              (65,174
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
            
 
 
 
Provision for income taxes
     9       —                          9  
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
            
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
   $ (106,511   $ 41,433     $ (105              (65,183
    
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
            
 
 
 
Weighted average shares outstanding of Class A Common Stock
             69,000,000                           
Basic and diluted net loss per share- Class A
           $ 0.00                           
Weighted average shares outstanding of Class B Common Stock
             17,250,000                           
Basic and diluted net loss per share- Class B
           $ 2.40                           
Weighted average shares outstanding of Joby Aero Common Stock
     32,239,448                                   
Basic and diluted net loss per share- Joby Aero
   $ (3.30                                 
Weighted average shares outstanding of Joby Aviation Common Stock
                                      577,960,162  
Basic and diluted net loss per share of Joby Aviation
                                    $ (0.11
 
40

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